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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghaiso-, or ghuiso- : gheiso-   'dart; staff, stick'

Semantic Field: Arrow

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: frum-gar n.masc leader, chieftain, patriarch, lit. first-spear LRC
  gar n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
  gara n gore, triangular piece W7
  gar-Dene prop.n.masc.pl spear-Danes LRC
  garleac n.neut garlic W7/ASD
  gar-wudu n.masc javelin, lit. spear-wood ASD
Middle English: garfysshe n garfish W7
  garlek n garlic W7
  gore n gore W7
English: garfish n gar AHD/W7
  garlic n European bulbous herb AHD/W7
  Gárulf prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gore n small triangular piece AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Saxon: ger n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
Low German: gere n wedge ASD
Old High German: ger n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
Middle High German: ger n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
German: Ger n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: geirr n.masc spear; point of anvil LRC
Icelandic: geirlaukr n garlic ASD
  geirr n.masc spear ASD
Hellenic  
Greek: chaion n.neut shepherd's staff W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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