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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ghe-, ghei-   'to lack, be empty; leave, go out'

Semantic Fields: Empty; to Leave, Relinquish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: agan vb to go W7
  ancra n.masc hermit, anchorite ASD
  forgan vb to pass by, forgo W7
  gad/gæd n.str.neut lack, want GED
  gæsne/gesne/gesine adj barren, wanting, deprived of RPN/ASD
  gan vb.anom to go, walk, move IEW
Middle English: ago adj/adv ago W7
  agon vb to pass away W7
  aire n heir MEV
  algate adv in all ways, at any rate MEV
  algatis adv continually MEV
  anchorite, ancres n anchorite(s) W7/MEV
  enheriten vb to inherit, make heir W7
  forgon vb.anom to forgo W7
  gait n gait W7
  gangrel adj/n vagrant; vagabond OED
  gate n gate W7
  gon vb.anom to go W7
  heir n heir W7
  heritage n heritage W7
English: ago adj/adv gone by, before present time AHD/W7
  anchorite n religious recluse, one who lives alone AHD/W7
  -chore n.sfx plant distributed by some agency AHD/W7
  choripetalous adj polypetalous AHD/W7
  chorography n art of mapping/describing region/district AHD/W7
  forego vb.anom to precede, go before AHD/W7
  forgo vb.anom.trans to forsake AHD/W7
  gait n manner of walking/moving on foot AHD/W7
  gangrel adj/n term re: Gollum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gate n.arch way, path AHD/W7
  ga(u)ntlet n double file of armed men striking person running between AHD/W7
  go, gone vb.anom to proceed, move on course AHD/W7
  heir n one entitled to inherit property AHD/W7
  hereditament n heritable property AHD/W7
  heredity n inheritance AHD/W7
  heritage n property that descends to heir AHD/W7
  inherit vb to receive, come into possession of AHD/W7
Scots English: gangrel n drifter, vagabond AHD
Old Frisian: gad n need GED
  gan vb to go IEW
Frisian: gean vb to go ASD
Dutch: gaan vb to go ASD
Old Saxon: gan/gen vb to go GED
  meti-ged(e)ono of famines GED
Low German: ga(a)n/gaen vb to go ASD
Old High German: gan/gen vb to go RPN/GED
  gaza n.fem street ASD
  gazza n gate, road W7
Middle High German: gan/gen vb to go ASD
  gazze n.fem gate, narrow road ASD
German: Gasse n.fem gate, thoroughfare, narrow road ASD
  gehen vb.str to go, walk LRC
Old Norse: gata n gate, road W7
Old Icelandic: ga vb to go GED
Icelandic: gata n.fem gate ASD
Old Danish: ga vb to go IEW
Danish: gaa/gaæ vb to go GED/ASD
Old Swedish: ga vb to go IEW
Swedish: gata n.fem street ASD
   vb to go GED
Gothic: gaidw n.neut lack, want GED/RPN
  gatwo n.fem street ASD
Crimean Gothic: geen vb to go IEW
Latin: chorographia n.fem chorography W7
  hereditas, hereditatis n.fem heredity W7
  heres, heredis n.masc/fem heir(ess) GED/RPN
Late Latin: anchoreta n anchorite AHD
  heredito, hereditare vb to inherit W7
  inheredito, inhereditare vb to inherit W7
Medieval Latin: anchorita n anchorite AHD
  hereditamentum n.neut hereditament W7
Old French: (h)eir n heir MEV
Middle French: enheriter vb to make heir W7
  heredité n.fem heredity W7
  heritage n.masc heritage, heirloom W7
  heriter vb to inherit W7
Ionic: chêrê adj/n bereft of husband; widow RPN
Attic: kigchánô vb to reach, meet with, arrive at RPN
  chatéô vb to crave, have need of, lack RPN
  chatízô vb to crave, have need of, lack RPN
  chatízôn n poor needy person RPN
  chêra adj/n bereft of husband; widow RPN
  chêros adj widowed, bereaved RPN
  chêtei adv.dat in lack of RPN
  chôréô vb to make room for another RPN
  chôros n place, (piece of) ground RPN
Greek: anachorein vb to withdraw W7
  kichanein vb to reach, attain W7
  kichêmenai vb to find GED
  châtéô vb to lack, crave, long for GED
  chêra n widow GED
  chêros adj bereaved, deprived of GED
  chôra n.fem land, country; space, room GED
  chorein vb to go, withdraw W7
  chôrízô vb to separate LRC
  chôrís prep apart LRC
  choros n.masc place W7
Late Greek: anachoretes n.masc person who retires from the world W7
Avestan: za-zami vb to release GED/RPN
Sanskrit: já-hati vb to leave, abandon GED/RPN
  hanis n.fem loss, abandonment, deprivation GED/RPN
  hapayati vb.caus to cause to leave; to be wanting RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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