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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghei- : ghi-   'snow; winter'

Semantic Fields: Snow (n); Winter

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: gomel/gomol/game/gamol adj old, aged, ancient ASD
English: chimera n she-monster: lion's head, goat's body, serpent's tail (Greek mythology) AHD/W7
  Gamling prop.n group leader in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hibernaculum n winter-resting part of plant AHD/W7
  hibernal adj wintry, re: winter W7
  hibernate vb.intrans to pass winter (in torpid/resting state) AHD/W7
  hiemal adj wintry, re: winter AHD/W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: gamall adj old, aged LRC
Italic  
Latin: chimaera n.fem chimera, she-goat W7
  hibernaculum n.neut winter residence W7
  hiberno, hibernare, hibernavi, hibernatus vb to winter, hibernate W7
  hibernus adj hibernal W7
  hiemalis adj hiemal W7
  hiems, hiemis n.fem winter LRC
New Latin: hibernaculum n.neut winter residence/resting part of plant W7
French: hiver n winter TLL
Hellenic  
Greek: cheimon n.masc storm; winter W7
  chimaira n.fem chimera, she-goat W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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