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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gheis-, and gheiz-d-   'shocked, aghast, confused'

Semantic Fields: Surprise; Wonder, Astonishment


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gæstan vb.wk to gast, afflict GED
  gast/gæst n.str.masc ghost, angel GED/ASD
Middle English: agast adj aghast W7
  agasten vb to gast W7
  gast/ghest/gost n ghost W7
  gasten vb to frighten W7
English: aghast adj shocked, struck with horror/terror/amazement AHD/W7
  barghest n ghost/goblin portending misfortune AHD/W7
  gast vb.trans to scare, frighten AHD/W7
  ghastly adj frightful GED
  ghost n soul, spirit, seat of life AHD/W7
  poltergeist n mischievous ghost responsible for unexplained noises AHD/W7
  Radagast prop.n wizard in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  snollygoster n shrewd unprincipled person/politician AHD/W7
Scots English: gest n ghost ASD
Old Frisian: gast/iest n.masc ghost ASD
Frisian: gæst n ghost ASD
Dutch: geest n.masc ghost ASD
Old Saxon: gest/gast/geist n.str.masc ghost GED/ASD
Low German: geest n.masc ghost ASD
Old High German: geist n.str.masc ghost GED
Middle High German: geist n.masc ghost ASD
German: Geist n.masc ghost W7/ASD
  Poltergeist n poltergeist W7
Old Icelandic: geiska-fullr adj lit. fearful GED
Icelandic: geiski n fright GED
Danish: geist n.masc/fem ghost ASD
Swedish: gast n.masc ghost, evil spirit ASD
Gothic: gaisjan vb.wk.I to be frightened ASD
  gasts n ghost LRC
  *us-gaisjan vb.wk.I to frighten GED
  *us-gaisnan vb.wk.IV to be amazed, astonished GED
Avestan: zaesa- adj horrible GED
  zoisnu- adj frightened, trembling GED
Sanskrit: hinásti vb to injure, destroy GED
  hid- vb to be angry GED
  hédas- n anger (of gods) GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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