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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghel-   'to yell, call, cry'

Semantic Fields: to Call, Summon; to Cry, Weep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: begiellan, begeall, begullon, begollen vb.str.III to yell, scream, screech LRC
  galan vb.str to sing W7/ASD
  g(e)aldor n.neut spell, charm, magic, enchantment IEW/ASD
  gi(e)llan/gellan/gyllan vb.str to yell W7/ASD
  gi(e)lpan/gylpan vb.str to boast, exult W7/ASD
  nihte-gale n.fem nightingale W7/ASD
Middle English: celidoine n celandine W7
  nightingale n nightingale W7
  yellen vb to yell W7
  yelpen vb to boast, cry out W7
English: celandine n yellow-flowered biennial herb AHD/W7
  cichlid n tropical freshwater spiny-finned fish AHD/W7
  Galdor prop.n Grey Haven elf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  nightingale n Old World thrush noted for nocturnal song AHD/W7
  yell vb to utter loud cry/scream/shout AHD/W7
  yelp vb to utter quick sharp shrill cry AHD/W7
Scots English: gale vb to cry ASD
Frisian: galljen vb to yell, sing ASD
Dutch: galmen vb to sound ASD
  golf n wave, surge, billow IEW
Old Saxon: galan vb to sing, call ASD
Old Low German: nahti-gala n nightingale ASD
Middle Low German: gelve n wave, surge, billow IEW
Low German: gillen vb to shriek ASD
Old High German: calm/galm vb to yell, sing ASD
  galan vb to sing ASD
  gellan vb to yell W7
  gelph n outcry W7
  nahti-gala n nightingale ASD
German: Gal(l) n sound ASD
  gällen/gellen vb to sound ASD
Icelandic: gala vb to sing, crow ASD
  galdr/galðr n.masc song, charm, spell, witchcraft, sorcery ASD
  gella vb to yell, sing ASD
Danish: gale vb to crow ASD
Swedish: gala vb to crow ASD
Latin: chelidonius adj re: swallow W7
Middle French: celidoine n.masc celandine W7
Lithuanian: gulbinti vb to praise W7/LD
Greek: kichle n.fem thrush, kind of wrasse W7
  chelidonios adj re: swallow W7
  chelidon, cheilidonos n.fem swallow W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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