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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghend-, and ghed-   'to get, grasp, seize'

Semantic Field: to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: spreidh n.fem cattle W7
Old English: be-gi(e)tan/bi-gi(e)tan vb to beget, produce LRC
  bi-ginnan/be-ginnan vb to begin IEW/ASD
  for-gietan vb to forget GED
  gi(e)tan vb.str to get, obtain, receive GED/RPN/ASD
Middle English: apprehenden vb to apprehend W7
  aprentis/apprentice n apprentice W7/CDC
  begeten/beyeten vb to beget W7
  beginnen vb to begin W7
  comprehenden vb to comprehend W7
  comprisen vb to comprise W7
  emprise n emprise W7
  enterprise n enterprise W7
  forgeten vb to forget W7
  gessen vb to guess W7
  geten vb to get W7
  misprision n misprision W7
  preie n prey W7
  preyen vb to prey W7
  prien vb to pry W7
  prise n prize W7
  prison n prison W7
  reprehenden vb to reprehend W7
  reprisail n reprisal W7
  reprise n reprise W7
  surprise n surprise W7
English: apprehend vb to seize, arrest; learn, perceive AHD/W7
  apprentice n trainee, one indentured to serve another AHD/W7
  apprise vb.trans to tell, give notice to AHD/W7
  beget, begat/begot, begotten vb.str.trans to sire, procreate as father AHD/W7
  begin, began, begun vb.str to commence, do first part, take first steps W7
  comprehend vb.trans to understand, grasp meaning of AHD/W7
  comprise vb.trans to contain, include AHD/W7
  depredate vb to ravage, plunder AHD/W7
  emprise n enterprise, undertaking AHD/W7
  enterprise n risky/difficult/complicated project/undertaking AHD/W7
  entrepreneur n one who manages/organizes/assumes risks of business/enterprise AHD/W7
  forget, forgot, forgotten vb.str to lose memory of AHD/W7
  get, got, gotten vb.str to take/gain possession of AHD/W7
  guess vb to form opinion with little/no evidence AHD/W7
  impresario n manager/conductor of opera/concert company AHD/W7
  misprision n neglect/poor performance of official duty AHD/W7
  osprey n fish-eating hawk AHD
  predatory adj preying on others AHD
  prehensile adj adapted for prehension by wrapping around AHD/W7
  prehension n (act of) grasping/seizing AHD
  prey n spoil, booty AHD/W7
  prey vb.intrans to raid for booty AHD/W7
  prison n state of confinement/captivity AHD/W7
  prize n thing taken by force/threat/stratagem AHD/W7
  pry vb.intrans to peer, look closely/inquisitively AHD/W7
  reprehend vb.trans to censure, voice disapproval of AHD/W7
  reprieve vb.trans to respite, delay punishment of AHD/W7
  reprisal n act/practice of using force less than war to redress grievances AHD/W7
  reprise n charge/deduction taken yearly out of manor/estate AHD/W7
  reprise vb.trans to take back AHD/W7
  spree n unrestrained indulgence/outburst of activity AHD/W7
  surprise n attack made without warning AHD/W7
Scots English: spreath n foray, cattle raid W7
Old Frisian: ur-jeta/for-jeta vb to forget GED/ASD
Old Saxon: bi-getan vb to seize GED/RPN
  bi-ginnan vb to begin IEW
  far-getan/for-getan vb to forget GED/ASD
Old High German: bi-ginnan vb to begin IEW
  fir-gezzan vb.str to forget GED
  gezan vb to get, obtain ASD
  pi-gezzan vb.str to uphold GED
German: vergessen vb to forget LRC
Old Norse: geta vb to get, obtain; guess LRC
Old Icelandic: gata n.str.fem riddle GED
  geta n.str.fem assumption GED
  geta vb to attain, produce; guess GED
Gothic: bi-gitan vb.str.V to find, meet LRC
Latin: adprehendo, adprehendere vb to apprehend CDC
  apprehendo, apprehendere vb to seize, apprehend W7
  apprendo, apprendere vb to learn W7
  comprehendo, comprehendere vb to comprise; comprehend W7
  -hendere vb.sfx to take W7
  praeda n.fem prey, booty W7
  praedor, praedari vb.dep to plunder, prey upon, seize booty W7
  prehendo, prehendere, prehendi, prehensus vb to grasp, seize GED/RPN
  prehensio, prehensionis n.fem act of seizing W7
  prendo, prendere vb to press, take W7
  reprehendo, reprehendere vb to hold back W7
Vulgar Latin: *apprenditicius n apprentice AHD
  imprehendo, imprehendere vb to undertake W7
Late Latin: depraedor, depraedari, depraedavi, depraedatus vb.dep to hunt, depredate W7
Middle Latin: apprenticius n apprentice CDC
Portuguese: apprehender vb to apprehend CDC
  apprendiz n apprentice CDC
Spanish: apprendiz n apprentice CDC
  aprehender vb to apprehend CDC
Old French: ap(p)rehendre vb to apprehend CDC
  apprentis n apprentice CDC
  aprendre vb to learn W7
  aprentis n.masc apprentice W7
  emprendre vb to undertake W7
  emprise n.fem undertaking, military expedition, glorious deed W7
  entreprendre vb to undertake W7
  entrepreneur n.masc undertaker W7
  mesprendre, mespris vb to make a mistake W7
  mesprison n.masc error W7
  preie n.fem prey W7
  preier vb to prey on, to seize booty W7
  prendre vb to take W7
  prise n.fem act of taking W7
  prison n.fem jail W7
  reprendre vb to take back W7
  reprise n.fem action of taking back W7
Middle French: apprendre vb to apprehend CDC
  aprentis n.masc apprentice W7
  comprendre, compris vb to understand W7
  emprise n.fem grip W7
  entreprendre vb to undertake W7
  entreprise n.fem enterprise, undertaking W7
  mesprison n.masc error, wrongdoing W7
  prendre vb to take W7
  reprendre, repris vb to take back W7
  reprisaille n.fem reprisal W7
  reprise n.fem action of taking back W7
  surprendre vb to take over, surprise W7
  surprise n.fem taking over, surprise W7
French: appréhender vb to apprehend: arrest CDC
  apprendre, appris vb to apprehend: perceive W7
  apprenti n.masc apprentice CDC
  entrepreneur n.masc contractor W7
  préhensile adj prehensile, seizing objects W7
Old Occitan: apprehendar vb to apprehend CDC
  apprentice n apprentice CDC
Old Italian: riprendere, ripresi, ripreso vb to take back W7
  ripresaglia n.fem reprisal W7
Italian: apprendere vb to apprehend CDC
  imprendere vb to undertake W7
  impresa n.fem undertaking, firm W7
  impresario n.masc contractor, manager W7/CID
Russian: za-gádka n riddle GED
Albanian: gjen vb to find GED
  gjëndem/gjindem vb to be found RPN
Greek: chandánô vb to take in, hold, contain, comprise GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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