The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. gher-, and gheru-, ghre-   'to beam, shine, shimmer'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: gerr adj short RPN
  gerraim vb to shorten, cut off RPN
Old English: græg/greg adj gray W7/ASD
  græg-hama adj/n.wk.masc gray-coated (one, i.e. wolf) ASD
Middle English: ambregris n ambergris W7
  gray adj re: color gray W7
  grisel adj grizzled W7
English: ambergris n waxy substance floating in tropical waters AHD/W7
  gray adj re: color gray AHD/W7
  greige adj undyed, unbleached AHD/W9
  Greyflood prop.n Eriador river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Greyhame prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  greyhound n tall slender dog (breed): swift, graceful, smooth-coated AHD/W7
  grisaille n gray monochrome painting AHD/W7
  griseofulvin n antibiotic for fungal infections AHD/W9
  griseous adj grizzled, mottled in color AHD/W7
  grisette n young working-class woman AHD/W7
  grison n gray S American carnivore AHD
  grizzle n gray hair AHD/W7
Old Frisian: gre adj gray ASD
Old High German: crisil adj gray AHW
  grao/graw adj gray W7/ASD
German: grau adj gray ASD
Icelandic: grar adj gray ASD
Old French: gris adj gray AHD
Middle French: gris/grisel adj gray W7
French: grisaille n grisaille W7
  grisette n grisette W7
Old Church Slavonic: zi'reti, zi'r'jo, zi'risi vb to see LRC
Sanskrit: hrásati vb to become short/small RPN
  hrasvá-h adj short, small RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
AHW=Rudolf Schützeichel: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch (1981)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next