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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: ghers-   'to stiffen, bristle, stand out'

Semantic Fields: Hard; to Stand

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: go(r)st n.masc gorse, bramble RPN
Middle English: abhorren vb to abhor W7
  gorst n gorse W7
  horrour n horror W7
  ordure n ordure W7
  urchin n urchin W7
English: abhor vb.trans to loathe, regard with repugnance AHD/W7
  arugula n rocket (salad crop) AHD
  gorse n furze (bush) AHD/W7
  hirsute adj roughly hairy AHD/W7
  hispid adj rough, covered by bristle/stiff hair/minute spines AHD/W7
  horrible adj dreadful, re: horror AHD
  horrid adj rough, bristling AHD/W7
  horripilation n goosebumps, hair bristling from fear/cold AHD
  horror n painful/intense fear/dread/dismay AHD/W7
  ordure n excrement AHD/W7
  orgeat n sweet almond-flavored syrup AHD/W7
  orzo n pasta shaped like barley pearls AHD
  rocket n yellowish flowered European herb AHD/W7
  urchin n hedgehog AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: gersta n barley W7
Italic  
Latin: abhorreo, abhorrere vb to abhor, shudder W7
  er n.masc hedgehog W7
  ericius n.masc beam set with spikes W7
  eruca n.fem cabbage, colewort, arugula W7/CLD
  hirsutus adj hairy, shaggy, rough W7
  hispidus adj rough, hairy, bristly W7
  hordeum n.neut barley W7
  horreo, horrere vb to bristle, tremble RPN
  horridus adj rough, shaggy, bristly RPN
  horror n.masc action of trembling, horror W7
Middle French: herichon n.masc hedgehog W7
  horror n.fem horror W7
  ord adj filthy W7
  ordure n.fem garbage W7
  orge n.masc barley W7
  roquette n.fem rocket W7
French: orgeat n.masc barley W7
Old Italian: rochetta n.fem.dim garden rocket W7
  ruca n.fem garden rocket W7
Hellenic  
Greek: kri n.neut barley W7
  chérsos adj/n dry (land) RPN
  cher n.neut hedgehog W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: harsa-h n bristling, erection (of hair) RPN
  hársati vb to bristle, become stiff/erect RPN
  hrstá-h adj bristling, erect, stiff RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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