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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. gheu-   'to gush, pour, found'

Semantic Field: to Pour


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: geotan vb.str to pour GED/ASD
  gutt n gut IEW
Middle English: confounden vb to confound W7
  confused adj perplexed W7
  foisoun n foison W7
  fonel n funnel W7
  guschen vb to gush W7
  gut n gut W7
  infusen vb to infuse W7
  profuse adj profuse W7
  refunden vb to refund W7
  refuse n refuse W7
  refusen vb to refuse W7
  transfusen vb to transfuse W7
English: affusion n act of pouring liquid AHD/W7
  choanocyte n collared/flagellated monadiform sponge cell AHD/CDC
  chyle n lymph milky from emulsified fats AHD/W7
  chylomicron n emulsified fat formed during digestion AHD
  chyme n semifluid, partly digested food passed by stomach into duodenum AHD/W7
  circumfuse vb.trans to envelop, surround AHD/W7
  confound vb.trans to destroy, bring to ruin AHD/W7
  confuse vb.trans to bring to ruin AHD/W7
  diffuse adj poured/spread out AHD/W7
  diffuse vb to pour out: permit/cause to spread freely AHD/W7
  ecchymosis n escape of blood into tissues due to ruptured blood vessels AHD/W7
  effuse vb to pour out (liquid) AHD/W7
  foison n rich harvest AHD/W7
  fondant n creamy sugar preparation used for candies/icings AHD/W7
  fondue n melted cheese flavored with wine/brandy AHD/W7
  font n assortment of type in one size/style AHD/W7
  found vb.trans to melt (metal), pour into mold AHD/W7
  funnel n hollow cone with tube extending from point AHD/W7
  fuse n combustible substance enclosed in cord/cable AHD/W7
  fusile adj.arch formed by melting/casting AHD
  fusion n liquefying/rendering plastic via heat AHD/W7
  futile adj serving no useful purpose AHD/W7
  geyser n spring that intermittently jets steam/hot water AHD/W7
  Goth prop.n member of East Germanic peoples W7
  Gothic prop.adj re: Goths' language/civilization W7
  gush vb to issue copiously/violently AHD/W7
  gust n sudden short rush of wind AHD/W7
  gut n bowel, entrails, intestine AHD/W7
  infuse vb.trans to instill principle/quality in AHD/W7
  parenchyma n higher plant tissue: thin-walled living storage/photosynthetic cells AHD/W7
  perfuse vb.trans to suffuse AHD/W7
  profuse adj extravagant, pouring forth liberally AHD/W7
  refund vb.trans to give/put back AHD/W7
  refuse n leavings, worthless/useless portion AHD/W7
  refuse vb to reject, decline to accept AHD/W7
  suffuse vb.trans to fill, flush, spread over/through like fluid/light AHD/W7
  transfuse vb.trans to transmit, convey from one to another AHD/W7
Old Frisian: (g)iata vb to pour GED
Old Saxon: giotan vb to pour GED
Old High German: gioz(z)an vb.str to pour GED/ASD
  gussa n flood W7
German: giessen vb to pour ASD
Old Norse: geysa/gjosa vb to gush, stream out CDC/GED
  gustr n gust of wind W7
  gyota vb to spawn LRC
Old Icelandic: geysa vb to gush, send out violently GED
Icelandic: geysa vb to gush, rush forth W7
  Geysir prop.n Great Gusher hot spring CDC
Danish: gyde vb to pour ASD
Swedish: giuta vb to cast ASD
Gothic: *giutan vb.str.II to pour GED
  *Gut-þiuda n.fem Goths, lit. Goth-people GED
  *ufar-giutan vb.str.II to pour to overflowing GED
  *us-gutnan vb.wk.IV to spill, be spilled GED
Latin: affundo, affundere, affudi, affusus vb to pour on W7
  circumfundo, circumfundere, circumfudi, circumfusus vb to pour around W7
  confundo, confundere, confudi, confusus vb to pour together, confuse W7
  diffundo, diffundere, diffudi, diffusus vb to spread out W7
  effundo, effundere, effudi, effusus vb to pour, splash W7
  fovea n.fem pit, pitfall GED
  fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus vb to found GED
  fusio, fusionis n.fem fusion W7
  futilis adj futile, useless, readily poured out GED
  infundibulum n.neut funnel W7
  infundo, infundere, infudi, infusus vb to pour in W7
  perfundo, perfundere, perfudi, perfusus vb to pour over W7
  profundo, profundere, profudi, profusus vb to pour forth W7
  refundo, refundere, refudi, refusus vb to refuse, pour back W7
  suffundo, suffundere, suffudi, suffusus vb to pour beneath W7
  transfundo, transfundere, transfudi, transfusus vb to pour into another container W7
Vulgar Latin: funditus, fundita, funditum vb.ptc poured W7
  refuso, refusare vb to refuse, pour back W7
Late Latin: affusio, affusionis n.fem a pouring into W7
  chymus n.masc chyle W7
New Latin: ecchymosis n.fem bruise W7
  parenchyma n.fem tissue of higher plants W7
Spanish: godo/goda n.masc/fem Goth; [slang] mainland Spaniard LRC
Old French: confondre vb to confound W7
  refus n.masc rejection W7
  refuser vb to refuse W7
Middle French: confus adj confuse W7
  diffuser vb to spread, diffuse W7
  foison n.fem abundance W7
  fondre vb to found W7
  fonte n.fem act of founding W7
  futile adj useless W7
  infuser vb to seep W7
  refonder vb to refund, found again W7
  refus n.masc rejection W7
  refuser vb to refuse W7
French: fondant adj melting W7
  fondre vb to melt W7
  fondu vb.past.ptc melted W7
  fondue n.fem fondue W7
Old Proven├žal: fonilh n.masc funnel W7
Italian: fuso n.masc spindle W7
Albanian: dyllë n wax LRC
Ionic: cheiê n.fem pit, hole, cave GED
Homeric Greek: ché[F]ô vb to pour, shed, strew LRC
Greek: ekchymosis n.fem bruise W7
  parachéô vb to pour in LRC
  parenchein vb to pour in beside W7
  parenchyma n.neut visceral flesh W7
  cheiá n.fem pit, hole, cave LRC
  chúdên adv at random, promiscuously LRC
  chulós/chumós n.masc chyle, chyme, juice LRC
  chutós adj shed, poured, heaped GED
Hittite: kutt- n wall LRC
Armenian: julem vb to pour LRC
Avestan: zaotor n priest LRC
Sanskrit: juhóti/juhuté vb to sacrifice, pour into fire LRC
  hóta n priest LRC
Tokharian: ku- vb to pour, dispense GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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