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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghre- : ghro- : ghru-   'to grow, become green'

Semantic Fields: to Grow; Green


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: græd n grass RPN
  græs n.neut grass RPN/ASD
  grasian vb to graze W7
  grene adj green RPN
  growan vb.str to grow, increase, flourish RPN/ASD
Middle English: gras n grass W7
  grasen vb to graze W7
  grene adj green W7
  growen vb to grow W7
  herbe n herb AHD
English: grass n herbage suitable/used for grazing animals AHD/W7
  graze vb to eat growing herbage AHD/W7
  green adj re: color green AHD/W7
  Greenfields prop.n Shire battle locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Greenway prop.n road through Bree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Greenwood prop.n Mirkwood's former name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  grow, grew, grown vb.str to spring up, develop to maturity AHD/W7
  herb n green leafy plant without persistent woody tissue TLL/W7
  herbaceous adj re: herb(s) W7
  herbage n herbaceous vegetation (used for grazing) W7
  herbivore n plant-eating animal W7
Old Frisian: grene adj green ASD
  groia vb to grow RPN
  growa vb to grow RPN
Dutch: gras n grass TLL
  groeien vb to grow RPN
Old Saxon: groni adj green ASD
Middle Low German: groien vb to grow RPN
Old High German: gras n grass W7
  graz n shoot, sprig, sprout RPN
  groen/gruen vb to grow, flourish ASD
  gruoni adj green ASD
  gruo(w)an vb to grow W7
German: Gras n.neut grass LRC
  grasen vb to graze LRC
  grün adj green ASD
Old Norse: gras n.neut grass, pasture; vegetation LRC
  gróa vb to grow LRC
Old Icelandic: gróði n growth, increase RPN
  gróðr n growth, crop RPN
  gróna vb to become green RPN
Icelandic: gresja vb to graze ASD
  groa vb to grow ASD
  grænn adj green ASD
Faeroese: gróa vb to grow RPN
Norwegian: gro vb to grow RPN
Danish: gro vb to grow RPN
  græs n grass TLL
Swedish: gro vb to grow RPN
  gräs n grass TLL
Gothic: gras n grass RPN
Latin: gramen n grass, stalk RPN
  herba n.fem herb, grass; stalk, blade TLL
Old French: erbe n herb AHD
  erbier n garden AHD
French: herbe n.fem herb, grass TLL
Homeric Greek: phorbê n herb, fodder, forage CLD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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