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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghreu- : ghruu- : ghru-   'to crush, rub sharply'

Semantic Field: to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Cornish: grou n grit GED
Welsh: gro n grit GED
Old English: great adj great, thick, coarse GED
  greot n.neut grit, dust, earth LRC
  grotan n groat W7
  grut n grout, coarse meal W7
  grytt n grit W7
Middle English: agrete adv collectively, as a body MEV
  gravel n gravel W7
  grete n grit W7
  grewel n gruel W7
  groot n groat, former British fourpence coin W7
  grotes groat, grains exclusive of hull W7
  gruen vb to shiver W7
  gryt n grit W7
English: achromatic adj without prismatic effect AHD
  chroma n color saturation AHD/W7
  chromatic adj re: color sensations/phenomena AHD/W7
  chrom(at)o- pfx re: color AHD
  -chrome n.sfx colored thing AHD/W7
  chrome n chromium AHD/W7
  chromium n blue-white multivalent metal AHD/W7
  congruent adj congruous AHD/W7
  gravel n sand AHD/W7
  great adj big, large in size AHD/W7
  grit n chaff AHD/W7
  grit n sand, gravel AHD/W7
  groat n hulled grain broken into larger fragments than grits AHD/W7
  groat n former British coin: fourpence AHD/W7
  grout n lees AHD/W7
  grow vb.dial to shiver AHD/W7
  growsome adj gruesome AHD/W7
  grue vb to shiver AHD/W7
  gruel n thin porridge AHD/W7
  gruesome adj grisly, inspiring horror/repulsion AHD/W7
  panchromatic adj sensitive to all visible light TLL
  rhodochrosite n rose red mineral: manganese carbonate AHD/W7
Old Frisian: grat adj great, thick, coarse GED
Middle Dutch: gruwen vb to shiver W7
Dutch: groot adj great TLL
Old Saxon: griot n.neut grit, rocks GED
  grot adj great, thick, coarse GED
Old High German: grioz n.neut grit, rocks GED
  groz adj great, thick, coarse GED
  ingruen vb to shiver W7
German: Gries n grit ASD
  gross adj great, thick ASD
  Rhodocrosit n rhodochrosite W7
Old Icelandic: grautr n.masc groat(s) GED
  grjot n.neut grit GED
Icelandic: grjot n.neut grit, stones, rubble ASD
Gothic: Greotingi prop.n.fem Ostrogoth tribe GED
Latin: congruens adj/vb.ptc same, congruent W7
  congruo, congruere vb to agree, come together, have same dimensions W7
  furfur n.masc bran W7
Medieval Latin: -chroma, chromat- sfx colored thing W7
New Latin: chromium n.neut chromium W7
Old French: gravele n.fem gravel, pebbles, pebbly ground W7
  greve n.fem beach, pebbly ground W7
Middle French: gravele n.fem gravel, pebbles, pebbly ground W7
French: chrome n.masc chromium W7
Lithuanian: graudùs adj brittle GED
  grudas n grain GED
  grusti vb to stamp GED
Latvian: graûds n grain GED
Greek: akhromatos adj achromatic AHD
  rhodochros adj rose-colored W7
  chraúô vb to scrape, graze, wound slightly RPN
  chroiá n skin; body RPN
  chrôma, chrômatos n.neut color, surface of the skin RPN
  chromatikos adj chromatic, re: color W7
  chrôs n.masc color, skin, surface of the body RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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