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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. guer-, gueru-, gueruu-, gueri-   'grave, heavy'

Semantic Field: Heavy, Weighty


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bair adj heavy RPN
  bráu, bró n mill RPN
Breton: breo n mill RPN
Cornish: brou n mill RPN
Old Welsh: breuan n mill RPN
Welsh: bryw adj/n strong/strength RPN
Old English: cweorn n.fem quern, (hand)mill RPN/GED
Middle English: agreven vb to aggrieve W7
  brigaunt n brigand W7
  brute adj brute W7
  gref n grief W7
  greven vb to grieve W7
  quern n quern W7
English: aggravate vb.trans to burden, make heavy AHD/W7
  aggrieve vb.trans to distress, give pain/trouble to AHD/W7
  -bar sfx re: weight/pressure AHD/W7
  bar n unit of (barometric) pressure AHD/W7
  barite n barium sulfate (mineral) AHD/W7
  baritone n male singing voice between bass and tenor AHD/W7
  barium n silver-white malleable metallic element AHD/W7
  bar(o)- pfx weight AHD/W7
  barycenter n center of mass AHD
  baryon n subatomic particle containing 3 quarks AHD
  barysphere n earth's core AHD
  baryta n barium compound AHD/W7
  blitzkrieg n lit. lightning war(fare) AHD/W7
  brig n brigantine AHD
  brigade n large body of troops AHD/W7
  brigand n thief, robber, bandit, plunderer AHD/W7
  brigantine n two-masted square-rigged ship AHD/W7
  brio n vigor, vivacity AHD
  brut adj having less than 1.5% sugar AHD/W7
  brute adj/n (re:) beast AHD/W7
  brutish adj crude, beastly, re: animal AHD
  centrobaric adj re: center of gravity AHD
  charivari n shivaree AHD/W7
  grave adj weighty, authoritative AHD/W7
  gravid adj pregnant AHD/W7
  gravimeter n device for determining specific gravity AHD/W7
  gravitate vb to move via gravitation AHD/W7
  gravitation n mutual attraction via mass LRC
  gravity n dignity/sobriety of bearing AHD/W7
  grief n grievance AHD/W7
  grieve vb to distress, cause to suffer AHD/W7
  guru n personal religious teacher, spiritual guide (Hinduism) AHD/W7
  isallobar n map/chart line depicting equal changes in barometric pressure AHD/W7
  isobar n map/chart line depicting places with equal barometric pressure AHD/W7
  quern n primitive grain-grinding hand mill AHD/W7
  sitzkrieg n static/nonaggressive warfare AHD/W7
Old Frisian: quern n.fem quern, millstone GED
Old Saxon: quern n.fem quern, millstone RPN/GED
Old High German: quirn, churn n.fem quern, millstone GED
  quirna, chwirna n.fem quern, millstone GED
German: Bar n.neut bar W7
  Blitzkrieg n.masc lightning war(fare) W7
  Brigade n.fem brigade LRC
  Krieg n.masc war(fare) W7
  Querne n.fem quern LRC
  Sitzkrieg n.masc static/nonaggressive warfare W7
Old Norse: kyrr adj quiet LRC
Old Icelandic: kvern n.fem quern, millstone RPN/GED
Gothic: (asilu-)qairnus n (donkey-)mill RPN
  kaurjan vb.wk to oppress, be a burden GED
  kaurjos heavy W7/GED
  kaurus adj heavy, weighty, oppressive GED
Latin: aggravo, aggravare, aggravavi, aggravatus vb to make heavier W7
  brutus adj heavy; dull, stupid, brutish W7/AHD
  gravidus adj pregnant W7
  gravis, gravis, grave adj grave, heavy, serious LRC
  gravitas, gravitatis n.fem gravity, seriousness W7
  gravo, gravare vb to burden W7
Vulgar Latin: grevis adj heavy, serious W7
Late Latin: caribaria n.fem headache W7
New Latin: baryta n.fem barium compound W7
Spanish: brio n brio AHD
Old French: agrever vb to aggrieve AHD
  gref adj grave, heavy W7
  grever vb to grieve, torment, weigh down W7
Middle French: agrever vb to aggrieve, make sad W7
  brigand n.masc brigand W7
  brigantin n.masc brigantine W7
  brut adj rough W7
  grave adj heavy, serious W7
  gravité n.fem gravity W7
French: baryton n.masc baritone W7
  brigade n.fem patrol, brigade W7
  brut adj brut; brutish W7
  charivari n.masc imbroglio, confused situation W7
  gravi- pfx weight W7
  gravimètre n.masc gravimeter W7
Proven├žal: briu n brio AHD
Old Italian: briga n strife AHD
  brigante n.masc skirmisher AHD
  brigantino n.masc brigantine, skirmishing ship W7/AHD
  brigare vb to fight W7
Italian: baritono n.masc baritone W7
  brigare vb to intrigue, solicit, canvass for W7/CID
  brigata n.fem company, party of friends W7/CID
  brio n brio AHD
Lithuanian: gìrna n millstone RPN
Latvian: dzirnavas n mill RPN
Old Church Slavonic: zru'novu' n millstone RPN
  zru'ny n mill RPN
Homeric Greek: barús adj heavy, weighty, grievous RPN
Greek: báros n.neut weight LS
  barútês n.fem weight, heaviness LS
  barú-tonos adj deep-sounding LS
  karebaria n.fem headache W7
  úbris n.neut violence LRC
Armenian: erkan n millstone RPN
Avestan: gouru- n viscous libation RPN
Kashmiri: goru adj dense, solid RPN
Sanskrit: garimán- n weight, heaviness RPN
  gáriyas adj.comp heavier RPN
  gurú-h adj heavy, weighty; venerable RPN
  gravan- n stone for pressing Soma RPN
Hindi: guru adj heavy; venerable W7
Tocharian B: kärweñässe adj stony RPN
  kärweñe n stone, rock RPN
  kramär n weight, heaviness RPN
  kramartse adj heavy RPN
Tocharian A: kramärts adj heavy RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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