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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 2. guet-   'to speak, talk'

Semantic Field: to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: andcwis n.fem answer, response AHD/ASD
  becweðan vb to say, assert, bequeath W7/ASD
  cweðan, cwæð, cwædon, cweden vb.str.V to say, speak LRC
  cwide n.str statement GED
  ge-cweþan vb.str to speak GED/ASD
  un-cwisse adj speechless GED
Middle English: bequest/biqueste n will, bequest W7/MEV
  bequethen vb to bequeath W7
  quethen, quoth vb.str to say, speak W7
English: bequeath vb.trans to give/leave by will AHD/W7
  bequest n legacy, action of bequeathing AHD/W7
  quittance n discharge from debt/obligation W7
  quoth vb.str.pret said, spoke AHD/W7
Old Frisian: quetha/queda/quan vb.str to say, speak RPN/GED/ASD
Old Saxon: gi-queðan vb to speak GED
  queddian vb.wk to greet GED
  queðan/quethan vb.str to say, speak RPN/GED/ASD
  quiti n.str statement GED
Old High German: gi-quedan vb to speak GED
  quedan vb.str to say, speak RPN/GED
  quetten vb.wk to greet GED
  quiti n.str statement GED
Middle High German: quiden/kiden vb to say, speak ASD
German: Quittung n.fem quittance, receipt LRC
Old Norse: kveða vb.str to say, speak, utter, declare GED
  kveðja n.fem greeting, salute LRC
Old Icelandic: kveðja vb.wk to greet, salute GED
  kviðr n.str statement GED
  sam-kvæðr vb.ptc agreeing GED
  u-kvæði adj speechless GED
Icelandic: kweða vb to say, speak ASD
Danish: qwaede vb to say, speak ASD
Swedish: kwaeda vb to say, speak ASD
Gothic: *af-qiþan vb.str.V to renounce LRC
  *ana-qiþan vb.str.V to blaspheme LRC
  *fra-qiþan vb.str.V to curse LRC
  ga-kwiþan vb to agree ASD
  *miþ-qiþan vb.str.V to agree LRC
  qiþan vb.str.V to say, speak GED
  us-qiþan vb.str.V to speak out, spread the news LRC
Armenian: koc n invitation GED
  kocem vb to call, name RPN
Sogdian: zam/zayem vb to say, speak GED
Sanskrit: gádati vb to say, speak GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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