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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ha ha!   (laughter)

Semantic Field: Various Cries

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: ceahhetan vb to laugh loudly RPN
Middle English: cakelen vb to cackle W7
English: cackle vb to emit hen-like sound/noise LRC
W-Germanic  
Dutch: kakelen vb to cackle RPN
Old High German: kachazzen/chahhazen vb to laugh loudly ASD
Middle High German: kach(ez)en vb to guffaw RPN/ASD
German: gackern vb to cackle LRC
  kachen vb to laugh loudly ASD
Italic  
Latin: cachinnare vb to laugh loudly ASD
  ha(ha)hae interj ha ha! [laughter] ELD
Baltic  
Lithuanian: gagù, gageti vb to cackle RPN
Slavic  
Russian: gógot n cackle, loud laughter RPN
  gogotát´ vb to cackle RPN
Armenian  
Armenian: kakazem vb to stammer, jabber, lisp RPN
  kakacem vb to cackle RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
interj=interjection
n=noun
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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