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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. iu-   'you (plural)'

Semantic Field: Human Being

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: eow pron.2.pl.dat/acc you W7
  eower pron.2.pl.gen your TLL
  ge pron.2.pl you W7
  git pron.2.du you two TLL
  inc pron.2.du.dat/acc you two TLL
  incer pron.2.du.gen your two TLL
  incit pron.2.du.acc you two TLL
Middle English: ye pron.2.pl you W7
  you pron.2.sg you W7
English: rendezvous n place appointed for meeting/assembling AHD/W7
  ye pron.2 you AHD/W7
  you pron.2 (one(s) being addressed) AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: je pron.2.sg/pl you [atonic form] TLL
  jij pron.2.sg.nom you TLL
  jou pron.2.sg.dat/acc you TLL
  jovw pron.2.sg.gen your TLL
  jullie pron.2.pl you TLL
  u pron.2.pl you TLL
  uw pron.2.sg/pl.gen your TLL
Old High German: ir pron.2.pl you W7
  iu pron.2.pl.dat you W7
German: euch pron.2.dat/acc you LRC
  euer pron.2.pl.gen your LRC
  ihr pron.2.pl you LRC
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: yðar pron.2.pl.gen your TLL
  yður pron.2.pl.dat/acc you TLL
  ykkar pron.2.du.gen your two TLL
  ykkur pron.2.du.dat/acc you two TLL
Swedish: Er pron.2.pl.gen/dat/acc your, you (courteous) TLL
  Ni pron.2.pl.nom you (courteous) TLL
Italic  
Old French: vos pron.2.pl you LRC
Middle French: rendezvous n.masc appointment W7
French: vous pron.2 you LRC
Albanian  
Albanian: juaj pron.2.pl.gen your LRC
  ju pron.2.pl you IEW
Indic  
Sanskrit: yuyam pron.2.nom.pl you W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
pron=pronoun
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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