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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kagh- : kogh-   'to sew, plait, etc.'

Semantic Fields: to Sew; to Plait


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Cornish: ke n hedge, fence W7
Old English: hæg n hedged land KEW
  hægtesse n.fem hag, witch, fury  
  haga n.masc haw W7/ASD
  hagaþorn n hawthorn W7
  hecg/hege n.masc hedge, fence W7
Middle English: colyndore n colander W7
  hagge n hag W7
  hawe n haw W7
  hawethorn n hawthorn W7
  hegge n hedge W7
  key n quay W7
English: cay n low reef/islet of coral/sand AHD/W7
  colander n perforated utensil for food drainage AHD/W7
  coulee n small stream AHD/W7
  couloir n mountainside gorge (in Swiss Alps) AHD/W7
  cullis n gutter in roof AHD/W7
  hag n.arch hobgoblin, female demon, evil/frightening spirit W7
  haggard adj not tamed AHD/W7
  haw n hedge, copse; hawthorn berry AHD/W7
  hawfinch n Eurasian finch with white/brown/black feathers AHD
  hawthorn n spring-flowering spiny shrub AHD/W7
  Haysend prop.n Buckland village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Hayward prop.n friend of Merry in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hayward n sheriff in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hedge n dense shrub/tree row forming fence/boundary AHD/W7
  hex n jinx, spell, curse W7
  hex vb to put hex on, practice witchcraft W7
  inchoate adj incipient, being partly/recently/imperfectly formed/begun AHD/W7
  key n cay AHD/W7
  key n quay AHD/W7
  percolate vb to filter, cause to pass through permeable substance AHD/W7
  quay n paved/solid artificial bank beside navigable water for loading/unloading ships AHD/W7
Dutch: kaai n quay TLL
Pennsylvania German: hexe vb to hex W7
Old High German: hag n hedge KDW
  hagan n haw KDW
  hagandorn n hawthorn KDW
  hagzussa/hazus n.fem hag, witch KDW
German: Hag n.masc hedge, fence, enclosure LRC
  Hexe n.fem hag, witch, sorceress W7
  hexen vb to hex, conjure, practice sorcery W7
  Kai n quay TLL
Old Norse: hagi n pasture, fenced field KNW
Danish: kaj n quay TLL
Swedish: kaj n quay TLL
Latin: cohum n.neut strap fastening plow beam to yoke W7
  colo, colare, colavi, colatus vb to sieve, filter W7
  colo, colere vb to cultivate, inhabit, honor W7
  colum n.neut sieve W7
  incohatus, incohata, incohatum adj begun LRC
  incoho, incohare, inchoavi, inchoatus vb to start, hitch up W7
  percolo, percolare, percolavi, percolatus vb to decorate W7
Late Latin: colatorium n.neut mountainside gorge W7
Medieval Latin: colatorium n.neut filter-house W7
Spanish: cayo n.masc cay W7
Middle French: hagard adj drowsy W7
French: coulée n.fem a flow(ing), e.g. of lava W7
  couler vb to flow, sink W7
  coulisse n.fem groove, slide W7
  couloir n.masc hallway W7
  haie n haw: hedge TLL
Canadian French: coulée n.fem a flow(ing) W7
Old Proven├žal: colador n.masc colander, utensil used to sieve W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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