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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kaito-   'chet, woods, forest'

Semantic Field: Woods, Forest


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: coet/coat n chet, copse, undergrowth IEW
Old Cornish: cuit n chet IEW
Middle Cornish: co(y)s n chet IEW
Old Welsh: coit n chet IEW
Welsh: coed n chet IEW
Old English: hæþ n heath W7
  hæðen adj heathen W7
Middle English: hather n heath W7
  heth n heath W7
  hethen adj heathen W7
English: Archet prop.n Bree village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  chet n woods/forest (in place names) LRC
  Chetwood prop.n Bree woods in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  heath n shrubby dicotyledonous evergreen plant(s) AHD/W7
  heathen adj re: pagan religion/customs AHD/W7
  heather n heath W7
  Heathertoes prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hoyden n girl/woman of saucy/boisterous/carefree behavior AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hethen adj heathen ASD
Middle Dutch: heiden adj heathen W7
Dutch: heide n heath TLL
  heiden n heathen; country lout W7
Old Saxon: heðin adj heathen ASD
Old High German: heida n heather W7
  heidan adj heathen W7
German: Heide n.fem heath ASD
  Heide n.masc heathen ASD
  Heidekraut n.neut heath ASD
Old Norse: heiðinn adj heathen LRC
Icelandic: heiðinn adj heathen ASD
Danish: hede n heath TLL
Swedish: hed n heath TLL
Gothic: haiþno n.fem heathen, gentile woman ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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