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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kap-   'to cop, grab, grasp; have?'

Semantic Field: to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cachtaim vb to take captive RPN
Welsh: caeth n slave RPN
Old English: be-hof n.masc use, purpose, behoof GED
  be-hofian/bihofian vb.wk to need, behoove GED/ASD
  habban, hæfde, hæfd vb.wk.III to have, possess LRC
  hæf n sea LRC
  hæfen(e) n.fem haven W7/ASD
  hæft n.masc bond, fetter; captivity RPN/ASD
  hæftan vb.wk to bind, arrest, confine RPN/ASD
  hæft(e) n.neut haft ASD
  hæften n.fem custody RPN/ASD
  hæftnian vb.wk to take captive RPN/ASD
  h(e)afoc/hafuc n.masc hawk W7/ASD
  hebban/hæbban vb.str to heave W7/ASD
  hefeld n heddle W7
  hefig/hefeg adj heavy W7/ASD
Middle English: acatour n cater W7
  accepten vb to accept W7
  behaven vb to behave W7
  behof n behoof W7
  behoven vb to behoove W7
  cable n cable W7
  cacchen vb to catch W7
  caitif adj caitiff W7
  capcioun n caption W7
  capcious adj captious W7
  capias n capias W7
  captive adj captive W7
  catour n cater W7
  conceiven vb to conceive W7
  deceiven vb to deceive W7
  excepten vb to except W7
  haft n haft W7
  hauk n hawk W7
  haven n haven W7
  haven vb to have W7
  helde n heddle W7
  heven vb to heave W7
  hevy adj heavy W7
  occupien vb to occupy W7
  perceiven vb to perceive W7
  precept n precept W7
  receiven vb to receive W7
  recoveren vb to recover W7
English: accept vb to receive with consent AHD/W7
  anticipate vb to give thought/treatment/discussion in advance AHD/W7
  behave vb to bear/comport (oneself) in particular way AHD/W7
  behoof n profit, advantage AHD/W7
  behoove vb to be proper/necessary/advantageous AHD/W7
  cable n strong rope, esp. 3+ inches in diameter AHD/W7
  caccia n (poem celebrating) chase W2I
  cacciatore n hunter-style meal: meat stew with wine/herbs/onions etc. AHD
  caitiff adj base, cowardly, despicable AHD/W7
  capable adj susceptible, able to do AHD/W7
  capacious adj able to contain large amount AHD/W7
  capias n legal writ/process commanding officer to arrest person AHD/W7
  capstan n vertical spindle-mounted windlass AHD/W7
  caption n part of legal instrument AHD/W7
  captious adj calculated to confuse/entrap/entangle in argument AHD/W7
  captivate vb to seize, capture AHD/W7
  captive adj taken/held as prisoner AHD/W7
  captor n one who has captured person/thing AHD/W7
  capture n catching/gaining control by force/guile/stratagem AHD/W7
  catch, caught vb.str to seize/capture after pursuit AHD/W7
  cater n buyer of provisions AHD/W7
  cater vb.intrans to provide food AHD/W7
  chase n pursuit, act of chasing AHD
  chase vb to hunt, pursue, run after TLL
  conceit n vain pride TLL
  conceive vb to become pregnant AHD/W7
  concept n notion, abstract figuration TLL
  conception n onset of pregnancy TLL
  cop n copper W7
  cop vb.trans to catch, capture AHD/W7
  copepod n small freshwater/marine crustacean AHD/W7
  copper n policeman, one who cops W7
  deceive vb to ensnare AHD/W7
  except prep with exclusion/exception of W7
  except vb to exclude, take/leave out AHD/W7
  forceps n instrument for grasping/holding/exerting traction AHD/W7
  gaff n spear(head) for taking fish/turtles AHD/W7
  haff n lagoon LRC
  haft n handle of tool/weapon AHD/W7
  have, had vb.irr to hold/possess as property AHD/W7
  haven n port, harbor AHD/W7
  hawk n diurnal bird of prey AHD/W7
  heave, hove vb.str/wk to lift, raise, elevate AHD/W7
  heavy adj having great weight AHD/W7
  heddle n set of parallel cords/wires in loom for guiding warp threads AHD/W7
  heft n bulk, weight, heaviness AHD
  inception n beginning, commencement AHD/W7
  incipient adj commencing, beginning to be (apparent) AHD/W7
  intercept vb.trans to stop/interrupt course/progress AHD/W7
  municipal adj re: internal affairs of nation/other political unit AHD/W7
  nuncupative adj oral, not written AHD/W7
  occupy vb.trans to engage attention/energies of AHD/W7
  participate vb to partake AHD/W7
  perceive vb.trans to attain awareness/understanding of AHD/W7
  precept n command/principle intended as general rule AHD/W7
  receive vb to get, take/come into possession of AHD/W7
  receptor n (sensory stimulus) receiver LRC
  recipe n prescription AHD/W7
  recover vb to regain, get back AHD/W7
  recuperate vb to regain, get back AHD/W7
  Sandheaver prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  susceptible adj re: submitting to action/process/operation AHD/W7
  tactoreceptor n receptor responding to touch AHD
  tangoreceptor n cutaneous receptor responding to touch/pressure AHD
Old Frisian: be-hof n.masc use, purpose, behoof GED
  habba/hebba vb to have GED
  hebig adj heavy ASD
  heva vb to heave ASD
Frisian: kapia vb to cop, take away W7
Dutch: haven n haven TLL
  hebben vb to have TLL
  kapen vb to cop, steal W7
Old Saxon: habbean vb to have GED
  havan/haban n haven; bowl KSW
  hebbian vb to heave ASD
  heftian vb to bind, fetter ASD
Middle Low German: be-hof n.masc use, purpose, behoof GED
Old High German: giheftan vb to fetter RPN
  haban/haben/han vb to have GED
  habuh/hapuh/habich n hawk W7/ASD
  hafan n haven; dish KDW
  haft n.masc captivity RPN/ASD
  hebic/heuig adj heavy W7/ASD
  heftan vb to seize, bind, arrest ASD
  hefti n haft ASD
  hevan/heffan/heuen vb to heave W7/ASD
  kouf n trade W7
Middle High German: be-huof n.masc purpose, business, behoof GED
  habene n haven W7
German: haben vb to have LRC
  Habicht n hawk ASD
  Hafen n.masc haven ASD
  Haff n.neut haff TLL
  Haft n.fem imprisonment ASD
  Haft n.masc clasp, rivet ASD
  heben vb to heave ASD
  Heft n haft ASD
  heften vb to bind ASD
  Kauf n.masc trade, purchase LRC
  kaufen vb to buy, purchase, pay for LRC
Old Norse: hafa, hafað vb to have, keep, hold; accept LRC
  hafald n heddle W7
  hefja vb to heave LRC
  hofn n haven KNW
Old Icelandic: haft n bond, chain RPN
  hof n.neut moderation GED
  hoefa vb to hit, fit GED
Icelandic: hafa vb to have ASD
  haft/hapt n.neut bond, chain ASD
  haukr n hawk ASD
  hefja vb to heave ASD
  hepti n.masc haft; kilt ASD
  höfn n.fem haven ASD
Danish: hav n sea TLL
  have vb to have TLL
  havn n haven ASD
Swedish: hamn n haven TLL
  hav n sea TLL
  hava vb to have TLL
Gothic: *dis-haban vb.wk.III to take, hold GED
  *ga-haban vb.wk.III to hold, maintain GED
  haban vb.wk.III to have, hold GED
  hafjan vb to heave ASD
  *haftjan vb to hold fast RPN
Latin: accepto, acceptare vb to accept, receive W7
  accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus vb to receive W7
  anticipo, anticipare, anticipavi, anticipatus vb to anticipate W7
  capax, capacis adj capable, capacious W7
  capio, capere, cepi, captum vb to take, seize RPN
  captio, captionis n.fem seizure W7
  captiosus adj deceitful W7
  captivus adj captive W7
  capto, captare vb.freq to chase W7
  captura n.fem capture W7
  caupo, cauponis n.masc huckster, innkeeper, petty tradesman ELD
  caupona n.fem inn, tavern, retail shop ELD
  cauponor, cauponari vb.dep to trade/traffic in ELD
  -cipare/-cupare vb.inf.sfx to take, seize W7
  conceptus n conception TLL
  concipio, concipere vb to conceive, take in W7
  decipio, decipere vb to catch, deceive W7
  excepto, exceptare vb to take out W7
  excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus vb to except, take out W7
  forceps n.masc pliers W7
  incipiens, incipientis adj/vb.ptc beginning W7
  incipio, incipere vb to begin W7
  intercipio, intercipere, intercepi, interceptus vb to intercept, catch in between W7
  municeps, municipis n.masc inhabitant of municipality; undertaker of duties W7
  municipalis adj of a municipality W7
  nuncupo, nuncupare, nuncupavi, nuncupatus vb to name W7
  occupo, occupare vb to seize, occupy W7
  particeps, participis n.masc participant W7
  participo, participare, participavi, participatus vb to share, involve, participate W7
  percipio, percipere vb to perceive, seize W7
  praeceptum n.neut precept W7
  praecipio, praecipere, praecepi, praeceptus vb to take beforehand, instruct W7
  recipio, recipere vb to receive W7
  recupero, recuperare, recuperavi, recuperatus vb to recuperate W7
  suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptus vb to take up W7
Vulgar Latin: captio, captiare vb to take, seize W7
Late Latin: capabilis adj capable W7
  captor n.masc someone who captures W7
  nuncupativus adj so-called W7
  susceptibilis adj susceptible W7
Medieval Latin: capulum n.neut lasso W7
  nuncupativus adj nuncupative W7
Portuguese: excepto prep except TLL
Spanish: cazar vb to chase TLL
  excepto prep except TLL
Old French: conceivre vb to conceive W7
  deceivre vb to deceive, to disappoint W7
  perceivre vb to perceive W7
Old North French: acater vb to buy W7
  cable n.masc strong rope W7
  cachier vb to hunt W7
  caitif adj vile, captive W7
  receivre vb to receive W7
Anglo-French: acatour vb to buy W7
Middle French: accepter vb to accept W7
  capable adj capable W7
  captieux adj captious W7
  capture n.fem rapt, capture W7
  excepter vb to except W7
  occuper vb to occupy W7
  recoverer vb to recover W7
French: captif n captive TLL
  chasser vb to chase TLL
  chétif adj scrawny, wretched TLL
  excepté prep except TLL
  gaffe n.fem long pointed rod; clumsy action W7
Proven├žal: gaf n.masc rod, fishing spear W7
Italian: caccia n chase, caccia W2I
  cacciatore n hunter; cacciatore AHD
  eccetto prep except TLL
Latvian: apkampt, apkampju, apkampu vb to embrace LRC
Russian: kobets n falcon W7
Albanian: kam vb to have IEW
Greek: kope n.fem oar W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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