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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. kar-, reduplicated karkar-   'hard'

Semantic Field: Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: carn n cairn W7
  carrac n.fem carr, cliff IEW
Scots Gaelic: carn n cairn W7
Cornish: karrek n carr LRC
Welsh: carn n cairn W7
  carreg n carr LRC
Old English: h(e)ard adj hard, stern, strong, brave ASD
  hearding n.masc hero, warrior, brave man ASD
  heardlice adv hardly, harshly, bravely AHD
  hearg/hear(c)h/herh n.masc temple IEW/ASD
Northumbrian: carr n carr OED
Middle English: -ard sfx -ard W7
  cancer n cancer W7
  canker n canker W7
  carne n cairn W7
  hard adj hard W7
  hardi adj hardy W7
  hardli adv hardly AHD
  standard n standard W7
English: -ard n.sfx one characterized by some performance/possession/association AHD/W7
  autocrat n ruler with unchecked power TLL
  cairn n heap of stones (as landmark/memorial) W7
  Cancer prop.n the Crab (northern zodiacal constellation) AHD/W7
  cancer n (disease involving) malignant tumor AHD/W7
  canker n erosive/spreading sore AHD/W7
  carangid adj re: marine spiny-finned food fish AHD/W7
  carcin(o)- pfx crab; tumor AHD/W7
  carcinoma n malignant epithelial tumor AHD/W7
  careen n state of careening/being careened AHD/W7
  carina n keel-shaped anatomical part/ridge/process AHD/W7
  carr n rock, stone, boulder OED
  Carrock prop.n huge boulder in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  chancre n primary sore/ulcer at site of entry of pathogen AHD/W7
  -cracy n.sfx form of government AHD/W7
  Dúnharg/Dunharrow prop.n Rohan refuge in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hard adj not easily penetrated/yielding to pressure AHD/W7
  Hardbottle prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Harding prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hardly adv just, barely AHD
  hardy adj brave, bold AHD/W7
  Harrowdale prop.n Rohan valley in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  standard n conspicuous object (banner) serving as emblem AHD/W7
  synkaryon n cell nucleus formed by fusion of preexisting nuclei AHD/W7
  Underharrow prop.n Rohan village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: herd adj hard RPN
Old Saxon: hard adj hard RPN
Old High German: Gerhart prop.n Gerard W7
  -hart prop.n.sfx -ard [used in personal names] W7
  hart(i)/hert(i) adj hard RPN/ASD
  haruc(h)/harug n.masc temple ASD
Middle High German: -hart prop.n.sfx -ard CDC
German: -hart n.sfx -ard CDC
  hart adj hard ASD
Old Norse: harðr adj hard, sharp, severe LRC
  horgr n.masc temple, (stone) altar, outdoor sanctuary LRC
Old Icelandic: herða vb to make hard RPN
Icelandic: harðr adj hard ASD
  hörgr n.masc heathen place of worship ASD
Norwegian: hard adj hard, strong RPN
Danish: haard adj hard, strong RPN
Swedish: hård adj hard, strong RPN
Gothic: hardus adj hard, stern RPN
Latin: Cancer prop.n.masc the Crab (constellation) W7
  cancer n.masc crab, cancer RPN
  carcinoma n.neut cancerous tumor W7
  carina n.fem ship's keel; nutshell W7
Late Latin: -cratia sfx power W7
New Latin: carina n.fem carina W7
  synkaryon n.neut cell nucleus formed by fusion of two nuclei W7
Spanish: caranga n.fem carangid (fish) W7
  estandarte n standard TLL
Old French: -ard n.sfx -ard CDC
  hardi adj bold, hardy W7
Old North French: cancre n.masc crab, canker, cancer W7
Middle French: carène n.fem keel W7
  -cratie sfx power W7
French: -ard n.sfx -ard CDC
  autocrate n autocrat AHD
  chancre n.masc canker, chancre W7
  étandard n standard TLL
Old Italian: carena n.fem ship's keel W7
Lithuanian: kratùs adj rough, uneven RPN
Ionic: kártos n strength, might RPN
Homeric Greek: kratús adj strong, mighty RPN
Greek: autokrates n ruling by oneself AHD
  karkínos n crab RPN
  karkinos n.masc crab, cancer W7
  karkinoma n.neut cancer W7
  kárta adv extremely, very much LRC
  karterós adj strong, stout, staunch RPN
  karyon n.neut nut W7
  kratéô vb to hold fast, take to heart; rule, conquer LRC
  -kratia sfx power, rule W7
  krátos n strength, might, power RPN
Sanskrit: karkata-h n crab RPN
  karkara-h adj hard, firm RPN
  karkasá-h adj rough, hard RPN
Pali: kakkasa- adj rough, harsh RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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