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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kei-   'to move, set in motion'

Semantic Field: to Move


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: behæs n promise W7
  behatan vb to promise W7
  hæs n.fem hest W7/ASD
  hatan, heht, heton, haten vb.str.VII to call, name; order, command; promise LRC
Middle English: behest n behest W7
  exciten vb to excite W7
  hest, hes n hest W7
  hight vb to be called W7
  hoten vb.past.ptc called, named W7
English: behest n demand, command AHD/W7
  bradykinin n biologically active polypeptide AHD
  cinema n cinematograph W7
  cinematograph n motion-picture camera/projector/theater AHD/W7
  cite vb.trans to summon to appear in court AHD/W7
  excite vb.trans to call to activity AHD/W7
  hest n percept, command AHD/W7
  hight adj called, named AHD/W7
  incite vb.trans to stir up/spur on/move to action AHD/W7
  kinematics n dynamics dealing with motion AHD/W7
  kinesics n study of nonlinguistic bodily communication AHD
  kinesiology n study of principles of mechanics/anatomy re: human movement AHD/W7
  -kinesis n.sfx division AHD/W7
  kinesthesia n sense mediated by organs in muscles/tendons/joints stimulated by movement/tension AHD/W7
  kinetic adj re: motion of material bodies AHD/W7
  oscitancy n act of gaping/yawning AHD
  resuscitate vb to revive from unconsciousness/apparent death AHD/W7
  telekinesis n production of motion without physical means AHD/W7
British English: cinema n motion picture W7
Old Frisian: heta vb to call, name; command; promise ASD
Old Saxon: hetan vb to call, name; promise ASD
Old High German: heiz(z)an vb to call, name; command; promise W7/ASD
German: heissen vb to call, be called ASD
  Kino n cinema TLL
Old Norse: heita vb to call, name, be called/named LRC
Gothic: háitan vb.str.VII to call LRC
  haiti n hest ASD
Latin: cieo, ciere vb to move W7
  ciereo, ciere vb to stir, move W7
  cito, citare vb to put in motion, rouse, summon W7
  citus adj fast W7
  cunctus, cuncta, cunctum adj all LRC
  excito, excitare vb to excite W7
  incito, incitare vb to incite, hasten, urge on W7
  resuscito, resuscitare, resuscitavi, resuscitatus vb to stir up again W7
  suscito, suscitare vb to stir up W7
New Latin: -kinesis sfx movement W7
  kinesthesia n.fem kinesthesia, sensory experience W7
  telekinesis n.fem moving objects from afar via mental powers W7
Middle French: citer vb to cite, summon, quote W7
  exciter vb to excite W7
  inciter vb to incite W7
French: cinématique n.fem kinematics W7
  cinématographe n.masc cinematograph W7
Albanian: çoj vb to send IEW
Greek: kinein vb to move W7
  kinema, kinematos n.neut movement W7
  kinesis n.fem motion W7
  kinetikos adj kinetic W7
  kinetos adj moving W7
Classical Armenian: ert`am vb to go, set out LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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