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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kel-   'cold; warm, caloric'

Semantic Fields: Cold, Frigid; Hot, Warm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hleo-mæg n.masc lit. protector-kinsman LRC
  hleo(w) n.neut lee W7/ASD
Middle English: caudel n caudle W7
  cauderon/caldron n cauldron W7
  lee n lee W7
  luke adj lukewarm W7
  lukewarm adj lukewarm W7
  scalden vb to scald W7
English: calenture n tropical fever caused by heat exposure AHD/W7
  caloreceptor n heat-sensitive sensor AHD
  caloric adj re: (generating) heat AHD/W7
  calorie n measure of heat AHD/W7
  calorific adj caloric AHD/W7
  calorimeter n apparatus for measuring heat AHD/W7
  calorimetry n measuring heat AHD/W7
  caudle n drink for invalids AHD/W7
  ca(u)ldron n large kettle/boiler AHD/W7
  chafe vb to warm AHD/W7
  chauffeur n person employed to drive motor vehicle AHD/W7
  chowder n thick soup/stew of seafood (e.g. clams) AHD/W7
  decalescence n reduced temperature increase due to phase change AHD
  incalescent adj white, glowing, luminous with heat AHD/W7
  lee n protective shelter AHD/W7
  lukewarm adj tepid, moderately warm AHD/W7
  nonchalant adj apparently unconcerned/indifferent AHD/W7
  recalescence n increase in metal temperature caused by phase change AHD/W7
  rechauffe n warmed-over food AHD
  scald vb to burn with steam/hot liquid AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hli n lee ASD
Old Saxon: hleo n lee ASD
Old High German: lao adj lukewarm W7
Old Norse: hæll n.masc heel LRC
Icelandic: hle n.neut lee, protected cove ASD
  hly n warmth ASD
  hlyja vb to shelter ASD
  hlyr adj warm ASD
Gothic: hlija n lee, tent ASD
Latin: calda n.fem warm water W7
  caldarius, caldaria, caldarium adj re: warm(ing) water CLD
  cal(e)facio, calefacere vb to chafe, make hot TLL
  caleo, calere vb to be warm W7
  calesco, calescere vb to become warm W7
  calidus adj warm W7
  calor n.masc heat W7
  calorificus adj that brings warmth W7
  recalesco, recalescere vb to grow warm again W7
Late Latin: caldaria n.fem cauldron, warm bath W7
  excaldo, excaldare vb to wash in warm water W7
Spanish: calentar vb to heat W7
  calentura n.fem fever (pustule) W7/Sal
  escaldar vb to scald TLL
Old French: chaloir vb to concern W7
  nonchalant adj nonchalant W7
  nonchaloir vb to disregard W7
Old North French: caudel n.masc mixed drink W7
  cauderon n.dim cauldron W7
  caudiere n warm bath W7
  caut adj warm W7
  escalder vb to wash in warm water W7
Middle French: chaufer vb to heat W7
French: calorie n.fem calorie W7
  calorique adj caloric W7
  chaudière n.fem bucket W7
  chauffer vb to chafe, heat W7
  chauffeur n.masc vehicle driver W7
  échauffer vb to overheat TLL
  nonchalant adj relaxed, casual, nonchalant W7
  réchauffé n rechauffe W7
Lithuanian: sáltas, saltà adj cold LRC
  siltas, siltà adj warm LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
Sal=Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española (1996)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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