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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 3. kenk-   'heel, hock, back of knee'

Semantic Field: Knee


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hela/hæla n.masc heel GED/ASD
  ho(h) n.masc heel; promontory ASD
  hoh-sinu n.fem Achilles tendon GED
Middle English: heel n heel W7
  hock/hough n hock W7
English: heel n back of human foot below ankle/behind arch AHD/W7
  hock n tarsal joint/region in hind limb of quadruped (e.g. horse) akin to man's ankle AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hela/heila n heel ASD
  ho-sene n Achilles tendon GED
Dutch: hiel n heel TLL
Old High German: hahsa n.wk.fem hock GED
  hahsanon n hamstring, heel/hough sinew ASD
Old Norse: ha-sin n.fem hock, Achilles tendon GED
  hæll n heel W7
Icelandic: ha-sin n hamstring, heel/hough sinew ASD
  hæll n heel ASD
Danish: hael n heel TLL
  hase n hamstring, heel/hough sinew ASD
Swedish: häl n heel TLL
Sanskrit: kankala n skeleton W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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