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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ker-, keru- : kra-, kerei-, kereu-   'horn, head, upper part of body'

Semantic Fields: Horn; Head


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: corn n drinking-horn GED
Breton: corn n drinking-horn GED
  karn n hoof of unicorn GED
Cornish: carow n deer GED
  corn n drinking-horn GED
  karn n hoof of unicorn GED
Welsh: carw n deer GED
  corn n drinking-horn GED
  karn n hoof of unicorn GED
Gaulish: *carnon n horn; trumpet GED
  carnuatus adj horned GED
Old English: an-horn(a) n.wk.masc unicorn, lit. one-horn GED
  heor(o)t n.masc hart, stag RPN/ASD
  horn n.str.neut horn RPN
  hyrne n.fem horn, angle, corner ASD
  hyrnet(u) n.fem hornet W7/ASD
Middle English: Capricorne prop.n Capricorn W7
  cerastes n cerastes W7
  corne n corn W7
  corner n corner W7
  cornet n cornet W7
  hernet n hornet W7
  hert n hart W7
  horn n horn W7
  Monoceros prop.n Monoceros AHD
  rinoceros n rhinoceros W7
  unicorne n unicorn W7
English: alpenhorn n straight wooden Swiss horn 7-15 feet long AHD/W7
  althorn n alto member of saxhorn family AHD/W7
  bicornuate adj re: 2 horns/horn-shaped processes AHD/W7
  Capricorn prop.n southern zodiacal constellation LRC
  carat n unit of weight (for gold/jewels) AHD/CDC
  carotene n orange/red crystalline hydrocarbon pigment AHD/W7
  carotid adj re: chief artery (pair) through neck to head AHD/W7
  carrot n biennial herb/root vegetable AHD/W7
  cerastes n venomous viper AHD/W7
  ceratopsian n herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur AHD
  cerebellum n large dorsal part of brain AHD/W7
  cerebrum n brain, encephalon AHD/CDC
  cervine adj re: deer AHD/W7
  cervix n neck AHD/W7
  cheer n joy, gaiety, lightness of mood/spirits AHD
  chelicera n anterior arachnid appendage AHD/W7
  corn n local hardening/thickening of epidermis AHD/W7
  cornea n transparent part of eyeball covering iris/pupil AHD/W7
  corneous adj horny AHD/W7
  corner n angle, point where lines/edges/sides meet AHD/W7
  cornet n valved brass wind instrument resembling trumpet AHD/W7
  corniculate adj re: small horn-shaped processes AHD/W7
  cornification n conversion of body cells into hair/nails/feathers AHD
  cornu n horn, part/structure resembling horn AHD
  corydalis n herb of fumitory family AHD/W7
  corymb n flat-topped inflorescence AHD/W7
  corynebacterium n rod-shaped bacterium AHD
  coryphaeus n chorus leader AHD/W7
  cranium n skull AHD/W7
  criosphinx n sphinx with ram's head AHD
  flugelhorn n bugle with valves AHD
  hart n stag, male red deer AHD/W7
  hartebeest n large African antelope AHD
  Horn prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  horn n bony process on upper part of head; instrument made thereof AHD/W7
  hornbeam n (type of) hardwood tree AHD
  hornblende n amphibolic mineral in igneous rock AHD
  Hornburg prop.n Rohan fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hornet n large social wasp AHD/W7
  hornfels n fine-grained metamorphic rock AHD
  Hornrock prop.n Hornburg site in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  keratin n tough insoluble protein in horn (etc.) AHD
  lamellicorn adj re: antennae ending in flat plates AHD/W7
  longhorn n Texas cattle breed LRC
  longicorn adj re: long-horned beetles AHD/W7
  migraine n recurrent severe headache AHD/W7
  Monoceros prop.n Unicorn (northern constellation) AHD
  olecranon n process of ulna projecting behind elbow joint AHD/W7
  Redhorn prop.n Misty Mountains peak in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  rhinoceros n thick-skinned herbivorous perissodactyl mammal AHD/W7
  rinderpest n acute infectious febrile cattle disease AHD/W7
  saveloy n ready-cooked dry sausage AHD/W7
  serval n long-legged African wildcat AHD/W7
  Starkhorn prop.n Rohan mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  tarboosh n brimless felt cap with silk tassel AHD
  Thrihyrne prop.n Helm's Deep mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  triceratops n herbivorous dinosaur of Cretaceous Period AHD
  tricorn adj re: 3 horns/corners AHD/W7
  unicorn n fabulous animal depicted with single horn in forehead AHD/W7
Old Frisian: herne n horn, corner, angle ASD
  horn n.str.neut horn GED
Middle Dutch: hertebeest n hartebeest, lit. horn-beast AHD
Dutch: hersen n brain; crown, top of head IEW/GED
  hoorn n horn TLL
Afrikaans: hartebeest n.obs hartebeest AHD
Old Saxon: hirot n hart GED
  hoh-hurnid adj having large horns GED
  horn n.str.neut horn RPN
Old High German: althorn n althorn AHD
  ein-hurno n.wk.masc unicorn, lit. one-horn GED
  hirni n.str.neut brain GED
  hiruz n.str.masc hart GED
  horn n.str.neut horn RPN
  hornaz/hornuz n hornet W7/ASD
  hrind n.neut ox AHD
  hurnen vb.wk to equip with horns GED
Middle High German: althorn n althorn AHD
German: Alpenhorn n.neut alpenhorn W7
  Althorn n.neut althorn W7
  Einhorn n.neut unicorn LRC
  Flügelhorn n.neut trumpet, flugelhorn LRC
  Gehirn n.neut brain(s); sense TLL
  Hirn n.neut brain LRC
  Hirsch n hart ASD
  Horn n.neut horn W7
  Horniss n hornet ASD
  Karotte n carrot TLL
  Rind n.neut ox, cow W7
  Rinderpest n.fem rinderpest W7
Runic: horna horn GED
Old Norse: horn n.neut horn; drinking horn; corner LRC
  hyrna n beak; corner of axe KNW
Old Icelandic: hjarni n.masc brain RPN
  hjarsi n.masc crown, top of head RPN
  hjörtr n hart, stag RPN
  horn n.str.neut horn GED
Icelandic: hjörtr n hart ASD
  hyra n horn/point (of ax-head), mountain peak ASD
Danish: hjerne n brain TLL
  hjørne n corner TLL
  horn n horn TLL
Swedish: hjärna n brain TLL
  horn n horn TLL
  hörn n angle, corner SAO/TLL
Gothic: haurn n.neut horn RPN
  *haurnja n flute (horn) player GED
  *haurnjan vb to blow/sound a horn GED
  þut-haurn n.neut trumpet GED
Latin: Capricornus prop.n.masc Capricorn, lit. Goat-horn W7
  cerebellum n.neut part of brain W7
  cerebrum n.neut brain RPN
  cervical, cervicalis n.neut pillow LRC
  cervinus adj of a deer W7
  cervix, cervicis n.neut neck W7
  cervus n.masc deer, stag RPN
  cornea n.fem cornea W7
  corneus adj horny W7
  corniculatus adj corniculate W7
  corniculum n.neut small horn W7
  cornu n.neut horn RPN
  corymbus n.masc cluster of fruit/flowers W7
  coryphaeus n.masc coryphee W7
  crabro n.masc hornet W7
  rhinoceros, rhinocerotos n.masc rhinoceros W7
  tricornis adj with three horns W7
  unicornis adj with one horn W7
Late Latin: carota n.fem carrot W7
  hemicrania n.fem pain in one side of the head W7
  unicornis adj unicorn, that has only one horn W7
Medieval Latin: cranium n.neut cranium, skull W7
New Latin: chelicera n.fem one of the anterior horns of arachnids W7
  corydalis n.fem a genus of herbs W7
Old French: corne n.fem horn W7
  cornere vb to blow a horn W7
  unicorne n.masc/fem unicorn W7
Middle French: carotte n.fem carrot W7
  corne n.fem horn, corner W7
  cornet n.masc cornet W7
French: carotide n.fem carotid, artery W7
  cervelas n.masc a type of sausage W7/R1
  chélicère n.fem cephalic appendice of the arachnids and limules W7/R1
  corymbe n.masc type of inflorescence W7/R1
  migraine n.fem headache W7
  serval n.masc small feline African animal W7
Old Prussian: curwis n ox GED
  sirwis n deer GED
Lithuanian: kárve n cow GED
Latvian: sirnas deer GED
Old Church Slavonic: krava n cow GED
  sri'na n horn GED
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: kárnux n trumpet GED
Ionic: kárê n.neut head; top part RPN
Attic: kára n.neut head; top part RPN
Greek: hemikrania n.fem pain in one side of the head W7
  kárnon n horn; trumpet GED
  karoun vb to stupefy W7
  karotides carotid arteries W7
  karoton n.neut carrot W7
  keraós adj horned RPN
  kéras n.neut head, animal's horn RPN
  kerastes adj horned W7
  kera(F)ós adj horned GED
  korydallis n.fem crested lark W7
  kórudos n crested lark GED
  korymbos n.masc cluster of fruit/flowers W7
  koryphaios n.masc coryphaeus W7
  koruphê n.fem summit RPN
  kraníon n.neut skull, upper part of head RPN
  kriós n.masc ram LS
  rhinokeros, rhinokerotos n.masc rhinoceros W7
  chele n.fem claw W7
  olekranon n.neut elbow W7
Hittite: karauar n horn GED
Armenian: sar n top, peak, summit RPN
Persian: sar n head AHD
  sarpush n headdress, tarboosh AHD
Avestan: sarah- n head GED
  sru-, srva n horn, nail GED
Sanskrit: síras- n.neut head, skull RPN
  sirsá-h n head, skull; top, upper part RPN
  sirsán- n head RPN
  srnga-m n.neut horn, tusk; peak, point RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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