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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. keu-, skeu-, lengthened grade keu-   'to see, hear, observe, hearken, attend to'

Semantic Fields: to See; to Hear; to Listen, Harken


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ælf-sciene/ælf-scieno adj beautiful, of elfin beauty ASD
  gehieran, gehierede, gehiered vb.wk.I to hear (of) LRC
  gehiran/gehyran/geheran vb.wk.I to hear (of) ASD
  hawian vb.wk to show GED/ASD
  he(o)rcnian vb.wk to hearken W7/ASD
  hieran, hierde, hiered vb.wk.I to hear, obey; belong LRC
  sceawian vb.wk to show GED/ASD
  sciene adj splendid, beautiful GED
Middle English: heren vb to hear W7
  herknen vb to hearken W7
  shene n sheen W7
  shewen/showen vb to show W7
  skawage n scavage W7
  skawager n scavager W7
English: acoustic adj re: sense/organs of sound/hearing AHD/W7
  caution n admonishment, warning AHD/W7
  caveat n warning prohibiting certain acts/practices AHD/W7
  hear vb to perceive/apprehend by ear AHD/W7
  hearken vb to listen, give ear AHD/W7
  kudos n glory, fame/renown resulting from act/achievement AHD/W7
  precaution n foresight, care taken in advance AHD/W7
  scavage n toll/duty on nonresident merchant's goods W2I
  scavager n scavage collector W2I
  scavenger n one employed to remove dirt/refuse from street AHD/W7
  scone n quick bread of oatmeal/barley flour baked on griddle AHD/W7
  sheen adj beautiful, resplendent AHD/W7
  show vb to see, behold, look at; display, exhibit AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hera vb to hear GED
  skawia/scowia vb to show GED/ASD
  skene adj splendid, beautiful GED
Dutch: hooren vb to hear TLL
  schoon adj pure, clean W7
  schoonbrood n fine white bread W7
  schouwburg n theater TLL
Flemish: scauwen vb to show AHD
Old Saxon: horian vb to hear GED
  ska(u)won vb to show GED/ASD
  skoni adj splendid, beautiful GED
Old Low German: scauwon/scouwon vb to show ASD
Old High German: horechen vb to listen W7
  horen vb.wk to hear GED
  sconi adj splendid, beautiful GED
  sconi n.fem splendor, beauty GED
  scouwon/sca(u)won vb.wk to show GED/ASD
German: hören vb to hear LRC
  schauen vb to show LRC
  schön adj sheen, splendid LRC
  Schöne n.fem beauty LRC
Old Norse: heyra, heyrað vb to hear (of) LRC
  skoða, skoðað vb to show, spy LRC
Old Icelandic: skygn adj smart, sharp-sighted GED
Danish: høre vb to hear TLL
Swedish: höra vb to hear TLL
Gothic: hausjan vb.wk.I to hear LRC
  *skauns adj beautiful GED
Latin: cautio n.fem precaution W7
  cautus vb.ptc/adj cautious, on guard W7
  caveo, cavere vb to take heed, be on guard W7
  praecaveo, praecavere, praecavi, praecautus vb to guard against W7
Late Latin: praecautio, praecautionis n.fem precaution W7
Old North French: escauwage n.masc inspection W7
French: précaution n.fem precaution W7
Latvian: kavet vb to delay GED
Old Church Slavonic: cudo n wonder GED
  cujo vb to perceive GED
Russian: cuchati' vb to perceive GED
Greek: akoustikos adj of hearing W7
  akoúô vb to hear, listen LRC
  thuoskóos n.masc sacrificing priest GED
  koéô vb to note, notice GED
  kûdos n.neut glory, renown GED
Armenian: cucanem vb to show GED
Old Iranian: *skauaþa- n splendor, majesty GED
Middle Iranian: skoh n splendor, majesty GED
New Persian: sukoh, sikoh n splendor, majesty GED
Avestan: cuvisi I hoped GED
Sanskrit: a-kúvate vb to intend GED
  kaví- n wise, seer GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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