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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kleng-, and klenk-   'to bend, wind'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlanc adj lank W7
  hlinc n.masc link; hill, ridge W7/ASD
Middle English: flank n flank W7
  lank adj lank W7
  link n link W7
English: fianchetto n (a certain) development of chess bishop AHD
  flange n rib/rim for strength/guiding/attachment AHD/W7
  flank n fleshy part of side between ribs/hip AHD/W7
  flanken n meat cut from short ribs AHD
  flinch vb.intrans to wince, shrink (as if) from pain AHD/W7
  lank adj thin, slender, not well filled-out AHD/W7
  link n connecting structure AHD/W7
  links sand hills along seashore AHD/W7
  Southlinch prop.n Bree pipe-weed in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old High German: (h)lanca n flank, loin, side W7
Middle High German: lanke/lanche n flank, loin, side CDC
German: Flanke n.fem flank, loin, side LRC
  Gelenk n joint LRC
Old Norse: hlekkr n chain W7
Middle French: flenchir vb to bend W7
Italian: fianchetto n.dim little flank AHD
  fianco n flank, side, hip AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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