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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ko-, ke-, with the particle ke, k(e)i-, k(i)io-   'this; here'

Semantic Field: Near (adj)

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish:  dem.pron this RPN
English  
Old English: behindan adv/prep behind W7/ASD
  he, heo/hie, hit/hyt pron.3.sg.nom he, she, it LRC
  heo/hi(e)/hy pron.3.pl.nom/acc they, them LRC
  heonan/heonon/heonun/hionan adv hence W7/ASD
  her adv here LRC
  hider adv here, hither LRC
  hi(e)ra/heora pron.3.pl.gen their(s) LRC
  him, hire, him pron.3.sg.dat (to) him, her, it LRC
  him/heom pron.3.pl.dat (to) them LRC
  hindan adv from behind W7
  hinder adv behind W7
  hindrian vb.wk to hinder W7/ASD
  hine, heo/hie, hit/hyt pron.3.sg.acc him, her, it LRC
  his, hire, his pron.3.sg.gen his, her(s), its LRC
Middle English: behinde/behynd adv/prep behind W7/MEV
  he, hye, it pron.3.sg.nom he, she, it W7
  henne(s) adv hence W7
  here adv here W7
  hider adv hither W7
  him, hire, him pron.3.sg.dat (to) him, her, it OED
  him, hire/heer, hit pron.3.sg.acc him, her, it OED
  hind adj hind W7
  hindren vb to hinder W7
  his, hire, his pron.3.sg.gen his, her(s), its OED
  hither adv yonder W7
English: behind adv/prep in place/time/situation departed from AHD/W7
  cis- dem.pfx on this side AHD/W7
  he pron.3.sg.masc that male AHD/W7
  hence adv away, from this place AHD/W7
  her adj re: female as possessor, agent/object of action AHD/W7
  here adv at/in this place AHD/W7
  him pron.3.sg.masc.obj that male AHD
  hind adj rear, re: part that follows/is behind AHD/W7
  hinder vb to hamper, make progress slow/difficult AHD/W7
  hindrance n act/instance/condition of hindering AHD
  his adj/pron.3.sg.masc.poss re: male as possessor, agent/object of action AHD/W7
  hither adv to this place AHD/W7
  it pron.3.sg.neut that one AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: hir adv here ASD
Dutch: haar pron.3.sg.fem.dat/acc (to) her TLL
  haar pron.3.sg.fem.gen her TLL
  heden adv today TLL
  hem pron.3.sg.masc.acc him TLL
  hen pron.3.pl.acc them TLL
  het pron.3.sg.neut it TLL
  hij pron.3.sg.masc he, it TLL
  hun pron.3.pl.dat (to) them TLL
  hun pron.3.pl.gen their TLL
Old Saxon: bihindan adv from behind ASD
  her/hier adv here ASD
  hinan adv hence ASD
Old High German: he pron.3.masc he W7
  hier/hiar adv here W7/ASD
  hin(n)an adv away W7/ASD
  hintana adv from behind ASD
  hintar/hindar prep behind W7/ASD
  hintarian vb to hinder ASD
German: hennen adv hence ASD
  herum adv around TLL
  heute adv today TLL
  hier adv here ASD
  hindern vb to hinder ASD
  hinten adv from behind ASD
  hinter adv behind ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: hann dem.pron this one, he RPN
Icelandic: hana pron.3.sg.fem.acc her, it TLL
  hann pron.3.sg.masc.nom/acc he, him, it TLL
  hans pron.3.sg.masc.gen his, its TLL
  hennar pron.3.sg.fem.gen her(s), its TLL
  henni pron.3.sg.fem.dat (to) her, it TLL
  heðra adv hither ASD
  her adv here ASD
  hindra vb to hinder ASD
  honum pron.3.sg.masc.dat (to) him, it TLL
  hun pron.3.sg.fem.nom she, it TLL
Danish: ham pron.3.sg.masc.dat/acc (to) him TLL
  han pron.3.sg.masc.nom he, it TLL
  hans pron.3.sg.masc.gen his TLL
  hende pron.3.sg.fem.dat/acc (to) her TLL
  hendes pron.3.sg.fem.gen her TLL
  hun pron.3.sg.fem.nom she, it TLL
Swedish: han pron.3.sg.masc.nom he, it TLL
  hans pron.3.sg.masc.gen his TLL
  henne pron.3.sg.fem.dat/acc (to) her TLL
  hennes pron.3.sg.fem.gen her TLL
  hon pron.3.sg.fem.nom she, it TLL
  honom pron.3.sg.masc.dat/acc (to) him TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: her adv here LRC
  hi- pron.stem this RPN
  hidre adv hither, to here W7/GED
  hindana adv beyond ASD
  hindar adv behind ASD
  hiri interj come here! RPN
Italic  
Latin: cis/ci-/ce-/-ce dem.pron/prep/pfx/sfx this; here; on this side W7
  citra adv/prep on this side (of), without LRC
Baltic  
Lithuanian: sìs, sì dem.pron this LRC
  sìtas, sità pron this LRC
  stai pcl here LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: si' dem.adj/pron this LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: ekeinos dem.pron that person W7
  *ke- dem.pron.stem that RPN
Anatolian  
Hittite: ka-a-as dem.pron this, that RPN
  ki-i dem.pron.nom/acc.neut this, that RPN
Palaic: ka- dem.pron this (one) RPN
  ki-i-at adv here RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
acc=accusative (case)
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
dat=dative (case)
dem=demonstrative
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
interj=interjection
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
pcl=particle
pfx=prefix
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
prep=preposition
pron=pronoun
sfx=suffix
sg=singular (number)
stem=stem
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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