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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kom   'at, by, cum, with, alongside'

Semantic Field: Side


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: com- adv/pfx together, completely RPN
Old English: gecleopian/geclypian vb.wk to call, invoke AHD/ASD
Middle English: co(m)- pfx co(m)- W7
  contra- pfx contra- W7
  contrarie adj contrary W7
  contre- pfx counter- W7
  contree n country W7
  countren vb to counter W7
  encountren vb to encounter W7
  epicene adj epicene W7
  icleped vb.past.ptc yclept AHD
English: cata-/kata- pfx down TLL
  catamenia menses AHD/W7
  catapult n ancient military device for hurling missiles AHD/W7
  co(m)-/con- pfx with, jointly, together AHD/W7
  conquian n Mexican card game: cooncan AHD
  contra- pfx against, contrary, contrasting AHD/W7
  contrary adj diametrically opposite AHD/W7
  contrary n opposite, incompatible fact/condition W7
  cooncan n early version of rummy AHD
  counter- pfx contrary, different AHD/W7
  counter vb to oppose, act in opposition AHD/W7
  country n region, indefinite expanse of land AHD/W7
  cum prep (along/combined/together) with AHD/W7
  encounter vb.trans to meet as enemy/adversary AHD/W7
  epicene adj sexless, bisexual, effeminate; hermaphrodite AHD/W7
  katabatic adj re: cold downward airflow AHD
  Koine prop.n Attic dialect common to Hellenistic world AHD
  yclept vb.past.ptc named, called AHD
German: Katapult n.neut catapult LRC
  kontra- pfx contra- LRC
Oscan: kúm prep cum: with RPN
Latin: catapulta n.fem catapult W7
  co(m)- adv/pfx with, together RPN
  contra adv/prep/pfx against, opposite, facing W7
  contrarius adj contrary W7
  cum conj/prep when; cum: with W7
Late Latin: incontra adv toward W7
Medieval Latin: contrata contrary, things against W7
  incontro, incontrare vb to meet, encounter W7
New Latin: catamenia n.fem catamenia W7
Portuguese: com prep cum: with TLL
  contra prep against, in opposition to TLL
Spanish: con prep cum: with TLL
  contra prep against, in opposition to TLL
American Spanish: conquián n conquian AHD
Old French: com- pfx com- W7
  contrée n.fem country W7
  encontrer vb to meet, encounter W7
Middle French: catapulte n.fem catapult W7
  contraire adj contrary W7
  contre prep/pfx against W7
French: contre prep against, in opposition to TLL
Italian: con prep cum: with TLL
  contro prep against, in opposition to TLL
Greek: epikoinos adj common, promiscuous W7
  káta/katá prep/adv/pfx by, down, under; downwards, completely, according to IEW
  katamenia n.fem catamenia W7
  katamenios adj monthly, lit. by month W7
  katapaltes n.masc catapult W7
  kátô adv down, downward LRC
  koinê adv publicly, in common, in concert LS
  koinós adj shared, common LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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