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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kþe(i)-, kþu(i)-   'to gain, acquire, possess'

Semantic Fields: to Get, Obtain; to Own, Possess


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: chek/chak n check OED
  chekmat(e) n checkmate OED
  ches n chess W7
  escheker n exchequer W7
  satrap(e) n satrap W7
English: check n chess move attacking opponent's king AHD
  checkmate n win/loss in chess game, lit. king [is] dead AHD/W7
  chess n 2-player board game (from India via Persia) LRC
  exchequer n medieval English office/department in charge of state revenue AHD/W7
  Kshatriya prop.n warrior/military caste, 2nd-highest of 4 in traditional Indian society LRC
  padishah n shah of Persia CDC
  satrap n provincial governor AHD/W7
  shah n king, ruler of a land AHD/CDC
  Xerxes prop.n Persian king of Achaemenid dynasty AHD
Dutch: skaak n check; chess OED
Middle High German: schach n check OED
German: Satrap n.masc satrap LRC
  Schach n.neut check; chess OED
Icelandic: skák n check; chess OED
Danish: skak n check; chess OED
Swedish: schack n check; chess OED
Latin: satrapes n.masc satrap W7
Medieval Latin: scacci chess OED
Portuguese: xaque n check; shah OED
Old Spanish: xaque n check OED
  xaquimate n checkmate OED
Spanish: jaque n check OED
Old French: eschec/eschek/escheq n check OED
  eschequier n.masc chessboard; counting table W7
  esches chess W7
Old North French: eskec/escac n check OED
Anglo-French: escheker n.masc chessboard; counting table W7
French: échec n.masc check; chess piece LRC
  échecs chess; chess set OED
Proven├žal: escac n check OED
  escacos chess OED
Italian: scacchi chess OED
  scacco n check OED
  scaccomatto n checkmate OED
Greek: satrapes n.masc satrap W7
Old Persian: khshathra n realm, province AHD
  khshathra-pava n lit. province-protector AHD
  *khshaya vb to rule over AHD
  khshayarshan- vb.ptc lit. ruling over men AHD
Persian: shah n shah; chess king OED
Sanskrit: ksatriya n upper-caste Hindu assigned to governing/military occupation W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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