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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kuet-, kuut- : kut-   'to shake, winnow'

Semantic Field: to Shake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: discussen vb to discuss W7
  paste n paste W7
  rescuen vb to rescue W7
English: cascara n buckthorn AHD/W7
  cask n barrel-shaped vessel (for liquids) AHD/W7
  concuss vb.trans to affect with concussion AHD/W7
  discuss vb.trans to dispel AHD/W7
  pasta n paste in fresh/processed form (e.g. ravioli/spaghetti) AHD/W7
  paste n dough containing significant proportion of fat AHD/W7
  pastel n paste of ground color AHD/W7
  pastis n French licorice-flavored liqueur AHD
  pastry n (sweet) baked dough/paste AHD
  pâte n paste/plastic material for pottery/porcelain AHD/W7
  pâté n meat/fish pie/patty AHD/W7
  patisserie n French pastry shop/bakery AHD
  patty n little pie AHD/W7
  percuss vb.trans to tap sharply AHD/W7
  rescue vb.trans to deliver, save, free from evil/danger/confinement AHD/W7
  scutch vb.trans to beat (flax/hemp) to separate woody fiber AHD/W7
  soukous n rumba-like W African dance music AHD
  squash vb to crush, press/beat into pulp/flat mass AHD/W7
  succussion n state/action/process of shaking/being shaken AHD/W7
German: Pasta n.fem pasta LRC
  Pastell n.neut pastel LRC
Danish: kasket n cap, hat TLL
Latin: concussus vb.ptc shocked, shaken W7
  discutio, discutere, discussi, discussus vb to shatter, disperse W7
  excutio, excutere vb to shake out W7
  executo, executere vb to beat out W7
  percussus vb.ptc struck W7
  quasso, quassare vb.freq to shake violently W7
  quatio, quatere vb to shake, strike W7
  succussio, succussionis n.fem running to help W7
  succutio, succutere, succussi, sucussus vb to fling up W7
Vulgar Latin: excutico, excuticare vb to beat out W7
  exquasso, exquassare vb to shake W7
  quassico, quassicare vb to shake, break W7
Late Latin: pasta n.fem dough, flour paste W7
  pastellus n.masc.dim woad (European herb) W7
Spanish: cascar vb to break W7
  cáscara n.fem bark W7
  casco n.masc skull, helmet, potsherd W7
Old French: escourre vb to shake out W7
  paste n.fem paste, dough W7
  pasté n.fem meat pie W7
  rescourre vb to free, save, rescue W7
Middle French: casque n.masc helmet W7
  esquasser vb to shake W7
  paste n.fem paste, dough W7
  rescourre n.fem rescue W7
French: casquette n.fem.dim cap, hat, lit. small helmet LRC
  pastel adj soft colors W7
  pâte n.fem paste, dough W7
  pâté n.masc pie (with meat fillings) W7
  pâtisserie n.fem pastry, patisserie LRC
Italian: pasta n.fem dough, paste, pasta W7
  pastèllo n.masc pastel, colored crayon W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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