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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kuon-, kun-   'hound, dog'

Semantic Field: Dog


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish:  n hound, dog LRC
Breton: koun n hound LRC
Welsh: ci n hound, dog AHD
Old English: grighund n.masc greyhound W7
  hund n.masc hound, dog W7
Middle English: grehound n greyhound W7
  hound n hound, dog W7
  kenel n kennel W7
English: canaille n rabble, riffraff AHD/W7
  canary n lively court dance of 16th century AHD/W7
  canicular adj re: Dog Star AHD/W7
  canine adj re: dogs (incl. foxes, wolves, jackals) AHD/W7
  chenille n silk/wool/cotton yarn with protruding pile AHD/W7
  corgi n Welsh fox-like dog breed, lit. dwarf-dog AHD
  cynic n philosopher: sole good is in virtue, whose essence is self-control/independence AHD/W7
  cynical adj peevish, captious, re: cynic W9
  dachshund n small dog (breed): long body, short legs, long drooping ears AHD/W7
  greyhound n tall slender dog (breed): swift, graceful, smooth-coated AHD/W7
  hound n hunting dog (breed) AHD/W7
  keeshond n grayish-black dog (breed) AHD
  kennel n shelter for dog(s) AHD/W7
  Procyon prop.n brightest star in constellation Canis Minor LRC
Old Frisian: hund n hound, dog ASD
Dutch: hond n hound, dog TLL
  keeshond n keeshond AHD
Old Saxon: hund n hound, dog ASD
Old High German: hunt n.masc hound, dog W7
German: Dachshund n.masc dachshund, lit. badger-hound W7
  Hund n.masc hound, dog W7
  Hündin n.fem bitch: female dog TLL
Old Norse: hund n hound W7
Icelandic: hundr n hound, dog ASD
Danish: hund n hound, dog TLL
Swedish: hund n hound, dog LRC
Gothic: hunds n.masc hound, dog LRC
Latin: canicula n.fem dog, the Dog-Star W7
  caninus adj re: dog W7
  canis n.masc hound, dog W7
  cynicus adj/n.masc cynic(al), lit. re: dog W7
  Procyon prop.n.masc Procyon W7
Vulgar Latin: canile adj re: dog W7
Old Spanish: canario n.masc canary, small finch W7
Middle French: canarie n.fem canary W7
  cynique adj cynical W7
French: canaille n.fem wicked man W7
  chenille n.fem caterpillar W7
  chien n hound, dog TLL
Italian: canaglia n.fem canaille W7/CID
  cane n.masc hound, dog W7
Lithuanian: suõ n dog LRC
Greek: kynikos adj cynical, lit. re: dog W7
  kúôn n.masc hound, dog LRC
  Prokyon prop.n.masc Procyon W7
Hieroglyphic Luwian: sù-wa-nà-i n dog LRC
Hittite: kun- n hound, dog LRC
Armenian: sun/san n dog LRC
Avestan: span- n dog LRC
Sanskrit: s(u)va n dog LRC
Tocharian B: ku, kwem n hound, dog LRC
Tocharian A: ku, kon n hound, dog LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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