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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kuel-, kuelu-   'to turn; wheel; neck?'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; Wheel; Neck

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: cul n wagon LRC
English  
Old English: healsbeorg/healsbeorh n.fem neck armor W7/ASD
  hweogol/hweol n.neut wheel W7/ASD
  hweogul/hweowol/hweohl n.neut wheel ASD
Middle English: coler n collar W7
  colonie n colony W7
  epicicle n epicycle W7
  halse n hawse W7
  haubergeoun n habergeon W7
  hauberk n hauberk W7
  pool n pole W7
  pouley n pulley W7
  wheel n wheel W7
English: accolade n ceremonial embrace AHD/W7
  ancillary adj auxiliary, subordinate AHD
  aviculture n raising/care of birds, esp. wild birds in captivity AHD/W7
  bicycle n vehicle with 2 wheels in tandem AHD/W7
  bucolic adj pastoral, re: shepherds/herdsmen AHD/W7
  calash n light 4-passenger carriage with small wheels AHD/W7
  cha(c)kra n center of spiritual energy (yoga philosophy) AHD
  chark(h)a n spinning wheel for cotton AHD/W7
  chukker n playing period of polo game AHD/W7
  col n pass in mountain range AHD/W7
  collar n band/strip/chain worn around neck AHD/W7
  collet n metal band/collar/ferrule/flange AHD/W7
  colony n people living in new territory (retaining ties with parent state) AHD/W7
  -colous adj.sfx living/growing in/on AHD/W7
  cullet n broken/refuse glass used to facilitate melting in glass-making AHD/W7
  cult n worship, formal religious veneration AHD/W7
  cultivate vb.trans to till, prepare and use for crop raising AHD/W7
  culture n tillage, cultivation AHD/W7
  cycle n time interval during which sequence of events is completed AHD/W7
  cycloid n curve generated by point on circumference of circle rolling along straight line AHD/W7
  cyclone n wind/storm system rotating around area of low atmospheric pressure AHD/W7
  cyclorama n large pictorial representation encircling spectator W7
  cyclosis n streaming of protoplasm within cell AHD/W7
  decollate vb.trans to behead AHD/W7
  decollete adj re: strapless/low-necked dress AHD/W7
  encyclical adj general, addressed to all individuals in group AHD/W7
  epicycle n path in which planet moves among stars AHD/W7
  habergeon n medieval mail jacket (shorter than hauberk) AHD/W7
  hauberk n tunic of chain mail AHD/W7
  hawse n hole for cable in bow of ship AHD/W7
  hemicycle n semi-circular legislative debate chamber TLL
  incult adj wild, untilled AHD/W7
  inquiline n animal living habitually in nest/abode of another species AHD/W7
  kolache/kolacky n sweet bread bun with fruit filling AHD
  Kultur prop.n culture, civilization AHD
  machicolate vb.trans to provide/furnish machicolation AHD
  machicolation n openings for firing upon assailants AHD/W7
  mariculture n cultivation of marine organisms AHD
  palingenesis n metempsychosis AHD/W7
  palinode n ode/song of recant/retraction AHD/W7
  pole n extremity of axis of sphere (esp. earth's axis) AHD/W7
  pratincole n limicoline bird AHD/W7
  pulley n sheave/small wheel with grooved rim for rope/cable AHD/W7
  ringhals n spitting cobra AHD
  saxicolous adj inhabiting/growing among rocks AHD/W7
  silvicolous adj living in woodlands AHD/W7
  talisman n object marked to confer supernatural power/protection AHD
  teleutospore n teliospore AHD/W7
  telic adj purposive, tending toward end AHD/W7
  teliospore n final stage in life cycle of rust fungus W7
  telium n teliospore-containing sorus/pustule on host plant of rust fungus AHD/W7
  telos n end of goal-oriented process AHD
  torticollis n twisting of neck resulting in abnormal carriage of head AHD/W7
  tricycle n 3-wheeled vehicle LRC
  wheel n hard circular frame that rotates on axle AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Middle Dutch: hals n neck AHD
Dutch: wiel n wheel RPN
Middle Low German: wel n wheel RPN
Old High German: hals n neck W7
  hals-pirc/hals-perg n gorget, neck armor ASD
German: Hals n.masc neck LRC
  Kalesche n.fem calash W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: hals n neck, hawse W7
Old Icelandic: hjól n wheel RPN
  hvél n wheel RPN
Icelandic: hals-björg n gorget ASD
  hvel/hjól n wheel ASD
Danish: cykle n bicycle TLL
  hals n neck TLL
  hjul n wheel ASD
Swedish: cykel n bicycle TLL
  hals n neck TLL
  hjul n wheel ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: hals n neck LRC
Italic  
Latin: ancilla n.dim.fem handmaid, maid-servant AHD/ELD
  anculus n.masc servant AHD
  aviscultura n aviculture CDC
  bucolicus adj bucolic W7
  -cola n.sfx inhabitant W7
  collum n.neut neck W7
  colo, colere, colui, cultum vb to till, inhabit, cultivate RPN
  colonia n.fem colony W7
  colonus, coloni n.masc farmer, settler LRC
  colus n distaff RPN
  decollo, decollare, decollavi, decollatus vb to behead W7
  incola n.masc inhabitant W7
  incultus adj unrefined, not cultivated W7
  inquilinus n.masc tenant, lodger W7
  polus n.masc pole, stake W7
  silvicola n.fem inhabitant of a wood W7
Vulgar Latin: accolo, accollare vb to be a neighbor W7
Late Latin: cyclus n.masc circle W7
  encyclicus adj circular, general W7
  epicyclus n.masc epicycle W7
Medieval Latin: cultivo, cultivare, cultivavi, cultivatus vb to cultivate W7
  cultivus adj cultivable W7
  machicolo, machicolare, machicolavi, machicolatus vb to furnish with machicolations W7
New Latin: cyclosis n.fem streaming of protoplasm within cell W7
  palingenesis n.fem second birth, in same/different body W7
  telium n.neut telium W7
  torticollis n.masc stiffness in neck W7
Old French: col n.masc collar, neck W7
  coler n.masc collar W7
  colet n.masc collar W7
  machicoleis n.masc machicolation W7
  machicoller vb to machicolate W7
Middle French: col n.masc collar, neck W7
  collet n.masc collar, trap W7
  colonie n.fem colony W7
  hauberc n.masc hauberk W7
  haubergeon n.masc.dim habergeon W7
  poulie n.fem pulley W7
French: accolade n.fem embrace W7
  accoler vb to embrace, stick with W7
  bicycle n.masc bicycle W7
  bicyclette n.fem bicycle W7
  calèche n.fem carriage W7
  col n.masc collar, col (of mountain) W7
  collet n.masc collar W7
  cueillette n.fem act of gathering W7
  culte n.masc cult W7
  -cycle sfx re: presence of wheels in device W7
  cycle n.masc cycle W7
  cycloïde adj cycloid, shaped like a circle W7
  décolleté n.masc neckline W7
  décolleter vb to give low neckline to dress/shirt W7
  tricycle n.masc tricycle W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: kãklas n neck RPN
Latvian: celis n knee LRC
Slavic  
Czech: kolace n.pl kolache, wheel-shaped cake AHD
  kolesa n.pl wheels, carriage W7
Old Church Slavonic: kolac n wheel AHD
  koleno n knee LRC
  kolo n wheel RPN
Russian: koleso n wheel RPN
Albanian  
Albanian: kulturor adj cultural, re: enlightenment LRC
  sjell vb to turn RPN
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: pélomai vb to be; to move? RPN
  pélô vb to be; to move? RPN
Greek: anatéllô vb to rise LRC
  boukolikos adj pastoral W7
  boukolos n.masc cowherd W7
  enkyklios adj circular, general W7
  entéllô vb to command LRC
  epikyklos adj coming around W7
  echanatéllô vb to spring up LRC
  -kolos afx herd W7
  kykloeides adj circular W7
  kúklos adj/n.masc round; ring, wheel, circle RPN
  kykloun vb to go around W7
  kúklô adv around, in a ring/circle RPN
  kykloma n.neut wheel, coil W7
  kyklosis n.fem encirclement W7
  pálin adv anew, again LRC
  palinoidia n.fem palinode W7
  poleúô vb to turn about, go about RPN
  poléô vb to revolve, go about, range over; turn up soil with plow RPN
  pólos n.masc pole, axis; hinge, pivot RPN
  sunteléô vb to complete LRC
  téleion n.neut fulfilled, perfect LRC
  téleios adj complete, finished, at an end RPN
  teleíô vb to fulfill, complete LRC
  teleutaîos adj last RPN
  teleutáô vb to complete, finish, achieve RPN
  teleutéô vb to die, finish LRC
  teleutê n.fem end, completion RPN
  teléôs adv at last RPN
  telêeis adj perfect, complete RPN
  télos n.neut end, fulfillment, completion RPN
Armenian  
Armenian: sjel vb to turn around LRC
Iranian  
Avestan: caraiti vb to go, move RPN
  caxra- n wheel RPN
  karsu n furrow LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: cakrá-h n wheel RPN
  calati/cárati vb to move, walk, wander RPN
Pali: cakka- n wheel RPN
Hindi: cakkar n circular course W7
  carkha n charkha W7
  cak n millstone, kind of wheel RPN
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: klautk- vb to turn, become RPN
  klutk- vb to turn RPN
  kokale n cart, wagon, chariot RPN
Tocharian A: kukäl n cart, wagon, chariot RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
afx=affix
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
sfx=suffix
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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