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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kuo-, kue-, fem. kua, kuei-   (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)

Semantic Field: to Ask, Request

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: cia int.pron who? LRC
  cía int.pron who? RPN
Breton: piou int.pron who? RPN
Cornish: pyw int.pron who? RPN
Old Welsh: pa int.pron what? LRC
Welsh: pwy int.pron who? RPN
English  
Old English: æghwæðer adj/pron both, each, every one, either W7/ASD
  hu conj how LRC
  hwa, hwæt int.pron who? what? LRC
  hwær/hwar adv/conj where ASD
  hwæt-hwega/hwæt-hwegu indef.pron/adv something, somewhat, a little ASD
  hwæt-hwigu/hwæt-hugu indef.pron/adv something, somewhat, a little ASD
  hwæðer/hweðer conj if, either, whether W7
  hwæðer pron whether ASD
  hwæð(e)re/hweðre conj but, yet, however ASD
  hwanon(e)/hwanan/hwonan adv whence W7/ASD
  hwider adv whither W7
  hwilc/hwelc/hwylc adj/pron which W7/ASD
  hwonne/hwenne adv when W7
  hwy/hwi adv/conj why W7/ASD
  nahwæðer/na(w)ðer/noðer pron neither W7/ASD
Middle English: aywhere adv on all sides MEV
  cotidian adj quotidian W7
  either/aither/ayþer adj/pron both, either W7/MEV
  how adv how W7
  nauther/neither/nother pron neither W7
  neutre adj neuter W7
  qualite n quality W7
  quantite n quantity W7
  quocient n quotient W7
  quorum n quorum W7
  what adj/adv/pron what W7
  when adv/conj when W7
  whenne(s) adv whence W7
  where adv wherefore W7
  whether conj/pron whether W7
  which adj which W7
  whither adv whither W7
  who pron who W7
  whos adj whose W7
  why adv why W7
English: aliquot adj contained in another an integral number of times AHD/W7
  conquian n Mexican card game: cooncan AHD
  cooncan n early version of rummy AHD
  cue n word/phrase/stage business (in play) signalling speech/action AHD/W7
  either adj/pron each, one or another (of two) AHD/W7
  how adv in what way/manner AHD/W7
  kickshaw n delicacy, fancy food AHD
  neither pron not one or the other (of two) AHD/W7
  neuter adj re: gender neither masculine nor feminine AHD/W7
  posology n study of drug/medicine dosages AHD
  qu n [abbr. for] cue AHD/W7
  qua adv as, in capacity/character of AHD/W7
  quality n nature, peculiar/essential character AHD/W7
  quantity n (indefinite) amount/number AHD/W7
  quibble n petty distinction, irrelevant objection AHD
  quibble vb to evade truth/importance via trivialities AHD
  quiddity n quibble, trifling point AHD/W7
  quidnunc n busybody, newsmonger, nosy person AHD
  quip n gibe, clever taunting remark AHD/W7
  quippy n quip AHD/W7
  quondam adj sometime, former AHD/W7
  quorum n number that, when duly assembled, are legally competent to conduct business AHD/W7
  quote vb.wk to speak/write words spoken/written by another AHD/W7
  quotidian adj occurring daily AHD/W7
  quotient n result of dividing one number by another AHD/W7
  what adv.obs why AHD/W7
  what int.adj/pron (inquiry re:) identity of object/matter AHD/W7
  when adv at what time AHD/W7
  when conj while/at/during a time AHD/W7
  whence adv from what place/source/cause AHD/W7
  where adv at/in/to what place AHD/W7
  whether conj [introduces alternatives] AHD/W7
  whether pron.arch which of two AHD/W7
  which adj re: what one/ones in group AHD/W7
  whither adv to what place AHD/W7
  who pron.nom what/which person(s) AHD/W7
  whom pron.obj who AHD/W7
  whose adj re: whom/which AHD/W7
  why adv for what cause/reason/purpose AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: hu/ho adv how ASD
  hwa int.pron who? RPN
  hweder conj whether ASD
  hwer adv where ASD
  hwet int.pron what? ASD
Dutch: hoe conj how TLL
  hoewel conj although TLL
  terwijl conj while TLL
  waar conj where TLL
  wanneer conj when TLL
Old Saxon: hwanan adv whence ASD
  hwar adv where ASD
  hwat int.pron what? ASD
  hwe/hwie int.pron who? RPN
  hweðar conj whether ASD
  hwilik pron which ASD
  hwo adv how ASD
Old High German: hwanan(a) adv whence W7/ASD
  hwanne adv/conj when W7
  hwar adv where W7
  (h)waz int.adj/pron what? LRC
  (h)wedar pron whether W7/TLL
  (h)wer int.pron who? W7
  hwuo/hweo adv how W7/ASD
  wilih/hwelih adj which, of what kind W7/ASD
German: entweder conj either TLL
  wannen adv whence ASD
  was int.pron what? ASD
  weder conj neither TLL
  welcher pron which ASD
  wer int.pron who? ASD
  wie adv how ASD
  wo adv/conj where; when TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: hvar adv where; everywhere LRC
  hverr adj/pron who, which, what; each, every LRC
  hví int.adv why? LRC
  hwelik/hwe(l)k/hulk pron which ASD
Old Icelandic: hvat int.adj/pron what? LRC
  hvé int.adv how? RPN
Icelandic: hvar adv where ASD
  hvar int.pron who? ASD
  hvat int.pron what? ASD
  hvárt conj whether ASD
  hvílíkr pron which ASD
Old Danish: hwa int.pron who? RPN
Danish: hvis conj if TLL
  hvor adv/conj where TLL
  hvordan conj how TLL
Old Swedish: ho int.pron who? RPN
Swedish: hur conj how TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: áinshun indef.pron [always with negative] (no) one, (n)one LRC
  hwe adv how ASD
  hweleiks/hwileiks pron which ASD
  hva int.adv why? LRC
  hvan adv when? whenever, at any time RPN
  hvar int.adv where? RPN
  hvarjis int.adj which? RPN
  hvas, hvo int.pron who? what? LRC
  hvaþ int.adv whereto? RPN
Italic  
Latin: aliquot adj/pron some, several W7
  cotidianus adj of every day W7
  neuter adj.pron neutral, none of two W7
  qua adv by, by means of W7
  qualis int/rel.pron of what kind W7
  qualitas, qualitatis n.fem quality, kind W7
  quam adv than, how, as LRC
  quando adv/conj ever, at some time; when LRC
  quantitas, quantitatis n.fem quantity W7
  quantum adv as much LRC
  quantus int.pron how much, how large W7
  qui, qua(e), quod indef.pron some, any, who LRC
  qui, quae, quod int/rel.pron who, which, what LRC
  quia conj because LRC
  quippe adv indeed, to be sure (often ironical) W7
  quis, quis, quid int/indef.pron who? what? someone, anything LRC
  quisque, quaeque, quodque indef.pron everyone LRC
  quisquis, quaeque, quicquid indef.pron whoever, whatever LRC
  quo adv what LRC
  quod conj that, because LRC
  quom, cum conj when, with LRC
  quondam adv sometimes, at a certain time W7
  quot adj/adv how many RPN
  quotidianus adv of every day W7
  quotidie adv every day W7
  quotiens adj/vb.ptc how many times W7
  quotus int.adj of what number/quantity W7
  sicut adv as, like LRC
  unde adv from whence LRC
  undecumque adv from every side LRC
  undique adv from every quarter LRC
  ut adv/conj as, where; that, so that LRC
  uter, utra, utrum pron which of two LRC
  uti conj that, so that LRC
  utique adv certainly LRC
Medieval Latin: aliquotus adj some W7
  quidditas n.fem essence, whatness W7
  quoto, quotare vb to number references, mark the number of W7
Portuguese: como conj as, how TLL
  dove conj where TLL
  onde conj where TLL
  quando conj when TLL
  que conj that; than TLL
Spanish: como conj as, how TLL
  cotidiano adj daily TLL
  cuando conj when TLL
  donde conj where TLL
  que conj that; than TLL
American Spanish: conquián n conquian AHD
Old French: qualité n.fem quality W7
  quantité n.fem quantity W7
Middle French: cotidian adj daily W7
  neutre adj neuter W7
French: comme conj as TLL
  comment conj how TLL
   conj where TLL
  quand conj when TLL
  que conj that; than TLL
  quotidien adj daily TLL
Italian: chè conj that; than TLL
  come conj as, how TLL
  cotidiano adj daily TLL
  quando conj when TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: kaip adv/conj/pcl how, as, like LRC
  kàs pron who, which, what LRC
  kur adv where, whither RPN
  kurìs, kurì pron/conj who, which LRC
Latvian: kada pron someone, anyone LRC
  kas pron that, which LRC
  katrs pron each, every LRC
  kur adv where LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: kogda int.adv when; sometime LRC
  ku'to int/indef.pron who? someone LRC
  ci'to int.pron what? LRC
Albanian  
Albanian:  int.pron who? LRC
  kur adv as, when IEW
  si conj as LRC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: póteros adj/pron which; whether LS
Greek: kô, pô adv yet LRC
  mêpote conj lest LRC
  ópôs adv so that LRC
  ósos rel.pron as many LRC
  óstis rel.pron whoever, whatever LRC
  oudépote adv never LRC
  oudépô adv not yet LRC
  póthen adv from where LRC
  pósos int.pron how much? how many? of what quantity? RPN
  poté adv ever, at some time LRC
  poû, ópou adv where LRC
  pou adv perhaps, anywhere LRC
  pôs int.pcl how LRC
  ti adv howsoever, in any way LRC
  tís, tí int.pron who? what? LRC
  tìs indef.pron someone, something LRC
Anatolian  
Luwian: ku-(i-)is int.pron who? RPN
  ku-wa-(a-)ti(-in) int.adv how? RPN
  ku-wa-at-ti rel.adv where, whence RPN
Lycian: ti int/rel.pron who RPN
Hittite: ku-is, ku-in, ku-it int.pron who? RPN
  ku-(u-)wa-at int.adv why? RPN
  ku-wa-(a-)pí int.adv when? where? whither? RPN
  ku-wa-(at-)tin int.adv where? whither? RPN
Palaic: kuis int/rel.pron who RPN
Lydian: qis rel.pron who RPN
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: zi conj for; that; because LRC
  omn adj/pron some, certain LRC
  or rel.pron who, what, which LRC
  k`an conj than LRC
Armenian: o int.pron who? LRC
  khani int.pron how many? RPN
Iranian  
Old Persian: ka- int.indef.pron.stem who RPN
Avestan: caiti int.pron how many? RPN
  cit int/indef.pron what LRC
  ka- int/indef.pron.stem who RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: ká-h, ka, kim int.pron who? RPN
  káti int.adj how many? RPN
  kútra int.adv where? RPN
  cid conj even, also RPN
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: kuce conj because; (so) that RPN
  kuse, kuce int/rel.pron who, whoever, the one who RPN
Tocharian A: kus, kuc int.pron who? which? what? RPN
  kusne, kucne rel.pron who, which RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
arch=archaic
conj=conjunction
fem=feminine (gender)
indef=indefinite
int=interrogative (mood)
n=noun
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
obs=obsolete
pcl=particle
pron=pronoun
ptc=participle
rel=relative
stem=stem
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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