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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: laku-   '(water in) lake, pond, ditch, etc.'

Semantic Field: Lake, Pond


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: loch n loch W7
Scots Gaelic: loch n.masc loch W7
Old English: lagu/lago n.masc lake, sea, water; (name for) L-rune W7/ASD
  lagu-lad n.str.fem water-way, ocean journey LRC
Middle English: lake n lake W7
  lough n lough W7
English: laccolith n igneous rock intruded between sedimentary beds AHD/W7
  lacuna n gap, blank space/missing part AHD/W7
  lagoon n shallow pond/sound/channel near/connected to larger water body AHD/W7
  lake n large inland body of still water AHD/W7
  Lake-town prop.n a.k.a. Esgaroth in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  loch n lake AHD/W7
  lough n lake AHD/W7
Scots English: louch n lake W7
Old Saxon: lagu n lake, sea, water ASD
  lagu-liðandi n seafarer ASD
Old High German: lagu n lake; (name for) L-rune ASD
German: Lagune n.fem lagoon LRC
Runic: *laguz n lake, water; (name for) L-rune LRC
Icelandic: lögr n.masc lake, sea, water, liquid; (name for) L-rune ASD
Gothic: lagus n lake, sea, water ASD
Latin: lacuna n.fem lack, lacuna W7
  lacus, lacus n.masc lake, pond, cistern, reservoir W7
Old French: lac n.masc lake W7
French: lagon n.masc lagoon W7
  lagune n.fem lagoon W7
Italian: laguna n.fem lagoon W7
Greek: lákkos n.masc lake, pond, pit, reservoir LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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