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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. lei-   'slimy; to slip, glide'

Semantic Field: to Slip, Slide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ad-slig vb to persuade GED
Old English: lam n.neut loam W7/ASD
  lim n lime W7
  sliht adj slight, simple, level GED
  slim n.masc/neut slime W7/ASD
  slipor adj slippery W7
Middle English: lime n lime W7
  liniment n liniment W7
  lom n loam W7
  oblivion n oblivion W7
  slight/sleght adj slight GED
  sliken vb to slick W7
  slime n slime W7
  slippen vb to slip W7
  slipper adj slippery W7
English: limacine adj re: slug AHD/W7
  lime n birdlime, sticky substance AHD/W7
  limicoline adj shore-inhabiting AHD/W7
  liniment n thin medicinal preparation for skin application AHD/W7
  litotes n understatement having affirmative expressed by negative of contrary (not a bad...) AHD/W7
  loam n soil mixture composed mainly of moistened clay AHD/W7
  oblivion n forgetfulness, act/instance of forgetting AHD/W7
  oubliette n dungeon with opening only at top AHD/W7
  schlep vb to lug, carry clumsily; move slowly/laboriously AHD
  slick vb to make sleek/smooth AHD/W7
  slight adj slim, frail; sleek, smooth AHD/W2I
  slime n soft moist clay/earth AHD/W7
  slimy adj viscous, re: slime W7
  slip vb to move with smooth sliding motion AHD/W7
  slippery adj causing one to slide/fall AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sliucht adj slight, even GED
Middle Dutch: slicht adj slight W7
Dutch: slijk n mud TLL
  slijm n slime ASD
Old Low German: lemo/leimo n loam ASD
Middle Low German: slecht adj slight, even, friendly GED
  slippen vb to slip W7
  slipper adj slippery W7
Old High German: leim n loam ASD
  lim n lime W7
  slefar adj slippery ASD
  sleht adj slight, even, friendly GED
  slihhan vb.str to glide GED
  slimen vb to smooth W7
Middle High German: slepfer adj slippery ASD
  slim n.masc slime ASD
German: Lehm n loam ASD
  Schleim n.masc slime ASD
  schleimig adj slimy LRC
Old Norse: leir n clay KNW
Old Icelandic: slettr adj slight, even, smooth, gentle GED
  sliur adj smooth GED
Icelandic: slím n.neut slime ASD
Danish: ler n clay TLL
  slette n plain TLL
Swedish: lera n clay TLL
  slät n plain TLL
Gothic: *slaihts adj smooth GED
Latin: levis adj light, smooth, mild W7
  lima n.fem file W7
  limax, limacis n slug W7
  limus n.masc mud W7
  lino, linere vb to smear W7
  oblivio, oblivionis n.fem oblivion W7
  obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus vb to forget W7
Late Latin: linimentum n.neut liniment W7
New Latin: limacinus adj of slugs W7
Middle French: oblivion n.fem oblivion W7
  oublier vb to forget W7
  oubliette n.fem oubliette, remote prison W7
French: oubliette n.fem remote isolated cell in medieval dungeon W7
Russian: slizkij adj slippery GED
Greek: leios adj smooth W7
  lígdên adv scraping GED
  líssomai vb to pray LRC
  litos adj simple W7
  litotes n.fem simplicity, litote (figure of speech) W7
  olibros adj slippery W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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