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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: leiku-   'to leave, relinquish'

Semantic Field: to Leave, Relinquish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fliuch adj damp W7
  leicid vb to leave, relinquish LRC
Old English: læn/lan n.fem loan W7/ASD
  lænan vb.wk to lend W7/ASD
  leon vb.str to lend W7/ASD
Middle English: eclipse n eclipse W7
  lenden vb to lend W7
  lenen vb to lend W7
  licour n liquor W7
  liquid adj liquid W7
  lon n loan W7
  prolix adj prolix W7
  relik n relic W7
  relinquisshen vb to relinquish W7
English: delinquent adj offending by neglect/violation of duty/law AHD/W7
  deliquesce vb.intrans to melt away AHD/W7
  derelict adj run down, abandoned by owner/occupant AHD/W7
  eclipse n total/partial obscuration of one star/planet by another AHD/W7
  ellipsis n omission of word(s) that can be supplied by reader/hearer AHD/W7
  lend, lent vb.wk to give for use temporarily (pending return) AHD/W7
  liquate vb.trans to separate out by application of heat AHD/W7
  liquefy vb to reduce to liquid state AHD/W7
  liquescent adj melting, being/tending to become liquid AHD/W7
  liquid adj flowing freely (like water) AHD/W7
  liquor n liquid substance AHD/W7
  lixiviate vb.trans to extract (from solid mixture) by washing/percolation AHD/W7
  loan n money lent at interest AHD/W7
  prolix adj unduly prolonged/drawn out AHD/W7
  relic n object esteemed/venerated due to association with saint/martyr AHD/W7
  relinquish vb.trans to abandon, retreat/withdraw from AHD/W7
Old Frisian: len n.neut grant, fee, fief ASD
  lena vb to lend, grant ASD
  lera vb to teach, instruct ASD
  lia vb to lend ASD
Old Saxon: (far-)lihan vb to lend ASD
  lerian vb to teach, instruct ASD
Old Low German: lian vb to lend ASD
Old High German: lehan n.neut loan, fee ASD
  lehanon vb to borrow ASD
  leran vb to teach, instruct ASD
  lihan vb to lend LRC
German: lehen n.neut fief, fee ASD
  lehnen vb to lend ASD
  lehren vb to teach, instruct ASD
  leihen vb to lend ASD
Old Norse: lan n loan W7
  lja vb to lend LRC
Icelandic: lána vb to lend ASD
  léna vb to grant ASD
  ljá vb to lend ASD
  læra vb to teach; learn ASD
Danish: lære vb to teach; learn ASD
Gothic: leihvan vb to lend LRC
Latin: delinquens, delinquentis adj/vb.ptc offensive, delinquent W7
  delinquo, delinquere vb to fail, offend W7
  deliquesco, deliquescere vb to melt, dissolve W7
  derelinquo, derelinquere, dereliqui, derelictus vb to abandon W7
  eclipsis n.fem eclipse W7
  ellipsis n.fem ellipse W7
  linquo, linquere, liqui, -- vb.I to quit, leave, go away W7
  liquefacio, liquefacere vb.III to liquefy W7
  liqueo, liquere vb.II to be fluid W7
  liquesco, liquescere vb to become liquid W7
  liquidus adj fluid W7
  liquo, liquare vb.II to melt, dissolve, make fluid W7
  liquor, liquoris n.masc fluid, fluidity W7
  lixa n.fem lye, water W7
  lixivius adj made of lye W7
  prolixus adj extended W7
  relinquo, relinquere vb to abandon, leave behind W7
  reliquiae remains W7
  reliquus, reliqua, reliquum adj remaining, left behind LRC
Late Latin: lixivium n.neut lye W7
  reliquiae remains of a martyr W7
Medieval Latin: reliquia relics W7
Old French: licour n.fem liquid, liquor, nectar W7
  relique n.fem relic W7
Middle French: liquefier vb to liquefy W7
  liquide adj fluid W7
  prolixe adj prolix, generous W7
  relinquir, relinquiss- vb to relinquish W7
French: éclipse n.fem eclipse W7
Old Prussian: polinka vb to remain LRC
Lithuanian: laikas n.masc time LRC
  laikýti, laiko, laike vb to keep LRC
  lìkti, líeka, lìko vb to remain LRC
  palìkti, palieka, palìko vb to leave LRC
Latvian: likt vb to leave LRC
  palikt, palieku, paliku vb to remain, become LRC
Homeric Greek: leípô vb to quit, leave LRC
Greek: ekleipw vb to fail, omit, suffer eclipse W7
  ekleipsis n.fem omition, eclipse W7
  elleipw vb to leave out, fall short W7
  elleipsis n.fem ellipsis, ellipse W7
Armenian: lk'anem vb to leave LRC
Avestan: irinahti vb to leave W7
Sanskrit: rinákti vb to leave W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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