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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. leit(h)-   'to die, go away'

Semantic Fields: to Die; Dead; Death; to Depart, Go Away


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: brim-lad n.fem path of the sea, lit. sea lane LRC
  lad n.fem lode, way, course W7/ASD
  lædan, læde, læded vb.wk.I to lead, bring LRC
  liflad n.fem livelihood W7/ASD
  Lið(a) prop.n.masc June-July: Lithe (sailing season) ASD
  liðan vb.str.I to sail, go (by sea) W7/ASD
Middle English: leden vb to lead W7
  livelode n course of life W7
  lod n load W7
  lode n lode W7
English: Afterlithe prop.n Shire calendar's July in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Forelithe prop.n Shire calendar's June in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lead, led vb.str to guide, go in front AHD/W7
  Lithe prop.n midsummer hobbit holidays in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  livelihood n means of support/subsistence AHD/W7
  load n pack, burden to be carried AHD/W7
  lode n waterway AHD/W7
  Silverlode prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: leda vb to lead, conduct ASD
Dutch: leiden vb to lead LRC
Old Saxon: ledian vb to lead, bring, bear ASD
  liðan vb to sail, go ASD
Old Low German: ledian/leidan vb to lead, bring ASD
Old High German: galidan vb to sail, go ASD
  leita n funeral procession ASD
  leitan vb to lead, bring W7
  lib-leita n livelihood, way of life ASD
German: leiten vb to lead, bring ASD
  Leitung n.fem management TLL
Old Norse: leið n.fem way, journey; road, path; manner, fashion LRC
  leiða, leidd vb to lead, bring LRC
Icelandic: leið n way, course, road; levy ASD
  leiða vb to lead, bring ASD
  líða vb to sail, go ASD
Danish: lede vb to lead LRC
Swedish: leda vb to lead LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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