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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. leu-   'to free, cut off, separate'

Semantic Fields: Free (adj); to Release; to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forleosan vb.str to lose W7/ASD
  leas adj/sfx vain, false; loose, bereft of; -less W7/ASD
  leas n.neut lie, deceit, falsehood ASD
  leasian vb.wk to lie, deceive, prevaricate W7/ASD
  *leosan vb.str.II to lose W7
  los n.neut loss, destruction W7/ASD
  losian vb.wk to lose, perish, get lost W7/ASD
Middle English: absolute adj absolute W7
  absolven vb to absolve W7
  as(s)oilen/as(s)oilien/assoylen vb to assoil W7
  dissolven vb to dissolve W7
  forloren vb.past.ptc lost, forlorn W7
  lesen vb to lose, suffer loss W7
  lesing n leasing W7
  -les(se) adj.sfx -less W7
  lorn adj lorn W7
  los n loss W7
  losel n rogue, rascal, worthless person W7
  losen vb to lose, ruin W7
  lous n louse W7
  parlesie n palsy W7
  soluble adj soluble W7
  solven vb to solve W7
English: absolute adj perfect, free from imperfection AHD/W7
  absolve vb.trans to free from obligation/consequences of guilt AHD/W7
  analysis n separation of whole into component parts AHD/W7
  assoil vb.trans to absolve, pardon AHD/W7
  catalysis n increase/modification in rate of chemical reaction AHD/W7
  dialysis n separating substances in solution AHD/W7
  dissolve vb to destroy, cause to disperse/disappear AHD/W7
  forlorn adj bereft, forsaken AHD/W7
  lag n barrel stave AHD/W7
  leasing n lie, falsehood, act of lying AHD/W7
  leister n fishing spear with barbed prongs AHD/W7
  -less adj.sfx devoid of, not having AHD/W7
  loess n unstratified loamy material thought to be deposited by wind AHD/W7
  loose adj not (rigidly/securely) fastened/attached AHD/W7
  lorn adj lost, ruined AHD/W7
  lose, lost vb.str to damn, bring to destruction AHD/W7
  losel n worthless person AHD/W7
  loss n act of losing AHD/W7
  lues n syphilis AHD/W7
  lyase n (kind of) enzyme AHD
  lyo- pfx dispersion, dispersed state AHD/W7
  lysis n gradual decline in, e.g., fever AHD/W7
  -lyte n.sfx substance able to undergo decomposition AHD/W7
  -lytic adj.sfx re: decomposition AHD/W7
  lytic adj re: lysis/lysin AHD/W7
  Nameless prop.n a.k.a. Sauron in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  palsy n paralysis AHD/W7
  paralysis n complete/partial loss of bodily function AHD/W7
  resolute adj resolved, marked by firm determination AHD/W7
  resolve vb to melt, dissolve AHD/W7
  soluble adj susceptible to being dissolved (as if) in fluid AHD/W7
  solute n dissolved substance AHD/W7
  solve vb.trans to find solution AHD/W7
  tachylyte n black glassy basalt AHD/W7
Scots English: assoilzie vb to assoil CDC
Old Frisian: las adj loose, without, free from ASD
Dutch: verliezen vb to lose ASD
Old Saxon: los adj false; loose, free from ASD
Old High German: los adj loose W7
German: los adj loose, without, free from ASD
  Löß n.masc loess W7
  Tachylyt n tachylyte W7
  verlieren vb.str to lose ASD
Old Norse: lauss adj loose, free LRC
  ljósta vb to strike LRC
  ljostr n leister W7
  losa vb to loosen W7
  lögg n barrel rim W7
Icelandic: lauss adj loose, free, void ASD
  los n looseness, breaking up ASD
Gothic: laus adj vain, empty ASD
  láusjan vb.wk.I to free, deliver LRC
Latin: absolvo, absolvere, absolvi, absolutus vb to absolve, discharge, set free W7
  dissolvo, dissolvere vb to untie, to dissolve W7
  lues n.fem plague W7
  luo, luere vb to release W7
  paralysis n.fem paralysis W7
  resolvo, resolvere, resolvi, resolutus vb to resolve, loosen W7
  solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus vb to loosen, dissolve W7
Late Latin: solubilis adj soluble W7
Medieval Latin: analysis n analysis AHD
New Latin: analysis n.fem analysis, breaking up W7
  dialysis n.fem dialysis W7
  lyo- pfx loosening, dispersion W7
  lysis n loosening, dissolution W7
Old French: as(s)oldre/assoil(li)er vb to assoil W7/CDC
Middle French: paralisie n.fem paralysis W7
  soluble adj able to be loosened/dissolved W7
Greek: analysis n.fem breaking up W7
  analyw vb to break up W7
  dialysis n.fem separation W7
  dialyw vb to dissolve W7
  katalysis n.fem dissolution W7
  katalyw vb to dissolve W7
  lysis n.fem act of loosening W7
  lytikos adj able to loosen W7
  lytos adj that may be untied, soluble W7
  lúô vb to loosen, free LRC
  paralysis n.fem paralysis W7
  paralyw vb to loosen, disable W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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