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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: leuk-   'to light, shine; see'

Semantic Fields: to Light, Kindle; to Shine, Glisten; to See


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: lochet n light(n)ing LRC
  luchair n radiance LRC
Old English: leah n.masc lea W7/ASD
  le(o)ht/liht adj light, clear ASD
  leoht/liht n.neut light W7/ASD
  leohtan vb.wk to light, shine ASD
  leoma n.masc ray, gleam; radiance GED
  lox n.masc lynx W7/ASD
  Lucifer prop.n Lucifer: the Devil symbolized by the morning star (Venus) W7
Middle English: levene n levin GED
  leye n lea W7
  light n light W7
  lightning n lightning W7
  Lucifer prop.n Lucifer: the Devil symbolized by the morning star (Venus) W7
  luculent adj luculent W7
  luminarye n luminary W7
  luminen/limnen vb to illuminate (a manuscript) W7
  luminous adj luminous W7
  luna n luna W7
  lunatik n lunatic W7
  lustre n luster W7
  once n ounce W7
English: elucidate vb to clarify via explanation AHD/W7
  elucubration n night study AHD
  illuminate vb.trans to supply/brighten with light AHD/W7
  illustrate vb to enlighten AHD/W7
  lea n pasture, grassland AHD/W7
  levin n lightning GED
  light, lit vb.wk to brighten, illuminate W7
  light adj bright, shining, luminous LRC
  light n brightness, illumination, that which makes vision possible AHD/W7
  lightning n flash of light from atmospheric electric discharge AHD/W7
  limbers gutters/conduits that provide passage for water to pump well AHD/W7
  Limlight prop.n Rohan border river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  limn vb.trans to draw AHD/W7
  link n torch used to light one's way through streets AHD/W7
  lucent adj luminous, glowing with light AHD/W7
  lucid adj luminous, suffused with light AHD/W7
  Lucifer prop.n morning star symbolic of an angel (Satan) before his fall AHD/W7
  lucifer n friction match W7
  luciferin n pigment in luminescent organism providing nearly-heatless light AHD/W7
  Lucina prop.n Juno, as goddess of childbirth (Roman mythology) LRC
  lucubrate vb to write in scholarly fashion AHD
  luculent adj lucid, clear in thought/expression AHD/W7
  lumen n cavity of tubular organ (e.g. blood vessel) AHD/W7
  luminary n someone notable in a chosen field AHD/W7
  luminous adj shining, emitting light AHD/W7
  Luna prop.n Moon goddess (Roman mythology) AHD
  luna n silver W7
  lunar adj re: moon AHD/W7
  lunate adj crescent-shaped AHD/W7
  lunatic adj insane, affected by lunacy AHD/W7
  lune n crescent-shaped portion of plane/sphere AHD
  lunula n small crescent-shaped marking/structure AHD
  luster n lustrum AHD/W7
  luster n sheen, glow of reflected light AHD/W7
  lustrum n purification of Roman people after 5-year census AHD/W7
  lux n unit of illumination AHD/W7
  lychnis n herb with terminal cymes of mostly red/white flowers AHD/W7
  lynx n wildcat with long legs/short stubby tail/often tufted ears AHD/W7
  mezzaluna n crescent-shaped knife with 2 handles AHD
  noctiluca n marine bioluminescent flagellates AHD/W7
  ounce n snow leopard AHD/W7
  pellucid adj admitting maximum light passage without diffusion/distortion AHD/W7
  phillumenist n one who collects matchbooks/matchboxes AHD
  relucent adj shining, reflecting light AHD/W7
  sublunary adj terrestrial: situated beneath moon AHD/W7
  translucent adj luminous, shining/glowing through AHD/W7
  twilight n light refracted/reflected by atmosphere while sun is down AHD
Old Frisian: liacht adj/n light ASD
Dutch: licht n light LRC
  lucifer n lucifer TLL
Old Saxon: lioht adj/n light ASD
  liomo n.masc ray, gleam; radiance GED
Old High German: lioht/lieht adj/n light, candle W7/ASD
  loh n thicket W7
  luchs/lohs n lynx ASD
German: Licht n.neut light ASD
  licht adj light ASD
  Luchs n lynx ASD
Old Norse: ljós n.neut light, lantern LRC
  logi n.masc flame LRC
Old Icelandic: ljomi n.masc ray, gleam; radiance GED
Icelandic: ljós n light ASD
  ljóss adj light ASD
Danish: lyn n light TLL
  lys n light LRC
Swedish: ljus n light LRC
Gothic: *lauhmuni n.fem lightning GED
  liuhaþ/liohaþ n light ASD
Latin: illumino, illuminare, illuminavi, illuminatus vb to enlighten, illuminate W7
  illustro, illustrare, illustravi, illustratus vb to glorify, make bright W7
  luceo, lucere vb to shine W7
  lucidus adj lucid W7
  Lucifer n lit. Light Bringer: Venus, the morning star W7
  lucifer adj light-bearing W7
  Lucina n.fem Juno, as goddess of childbirth (Roman mythology) W7
  luculentus adj luminous, brillant W7
  lucus n.masc grove W7
  lumen, luminis n.neut light GED
  lumino, luminare vb to light up W7
  luminosus adj luminous W7
  Luna prop.n.fem Luna LRC
  luna n.fem moon W7
  lunaris adj lunar W7
  luno, lunare, lunavi, lunatus vb to bend like crescent W7
  lustro, lustrare vb to brighten, purify W7
  lustrum n.neut period of 5 years W7
  lux, lucis n.fem light LRC
  lychnis n.fem red flower W7
  lychnus n.masc lamp W7
  lynx, lyncis n.fem lynx W7
  noctiluca n.fem something shining by night W7
  reluceo, relucere vb to shine back W7
  transluceo, translucere vb to shine through W7
Late Latin: elucido, elucidare, elucidavi, elucidatus vb to elucidate W7
  luminaria lamps, luminary W7
  lunaticus adj lunatic W7
  sublunaris adj sublunary W7
Medieval Latin: linchinus n.masc candle W7
  luna n.fem moon, luna W7
New Latin: lychnis n.fem (genus name) W7
  noctiluca n.fem (genus name for) marine flagellates W7
Old French: lonce n.fem ounce W7
  lumière n.fem light, opening W7
  lunatique adj lunatic W7
Middle French: enluminer vb to decorate with enluminures W7
  luminaire n.masc lamp W7
French: lumière n.fem light W7
  lune n moon TLL
Old Italian: lustrare vb to brighten W7
  lustro n.masc glow of reflected light W7
Old Prussian: luckis n block of wood LRC
Lithuanian: láukas adj having a blaze (re: horse) LRC
  laukas n.masc field LRC
Old Church Slavonic: luca/luc' n gleam, ray of light LRC
Homeric Greek: leukós adj white; light, bright, clear LS
Greek: leukaínô vb to make/be(come) white LS
  lúchnos n.masc lamp LS
Hittite: lukk- vb to light, ignite LRC
Classical Armenian: loys n light LRC
  lucanem vb to light, ignite, burn LRC
Old Persian: raucah n day LRC
Avestan: raocah- adj bright LRC
Sanskrit: rócate vb to shine LRC
Tokharian: luk- n gleam LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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