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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: mad-   'to drip; wet; fat, glossy, well-fed'

Semantic Field: Wet, Damp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gemetta n guest at table W7
  mæst n mast W7/ASD
  mete/mæte n.masc meat W7/ASD
Middle English: mast n mast W7
  mate n mate W7
  mete n meat W7
English: casemate n armored/fortified place where guns are mounted AHD/W7
  mast n nuts accumulated on forest floor AHD/W7
  mastoid adj pterotic; teat-like, nipple-shaped CDC
  mate n companion, associate AHD/W7
  matte n metal mixed with its sulfides AHD
  meat n food AHD/W7
  meathead n dull/stupid person AHD
  muesli n mixture of untoasted rolled oats/dried fruit AHD
  musth n periodic frenzy of bull elephant during rut AHD/W7
  myna n Asiatic starling AHD/W7
  sternocleidomastoid n neck muscle that rotates head AHD
Old Frisian: mete n meat ASD
Old Saxon: meti n meat ASD
Middle Low German: mat n mate W7
Old High German: mast n mast ASD
  maz n.neut food W7/ASD
German: Mast n.fem mast LRC
Old Norse: matr n.masc food, meal LRC
Icelandic: matr n meat ASD
Gothic: matjan vb.wk.I to eat LRC
  mats n meat ASD
Latin: madeo, madere vb to be wet, drunk W7
French: matte n matte AHD
Old Italian: casamatta n.fem casemate W7
Greek: madaros adj wet W7
  mastós n.masc breast W7
Sanskrit: madana n Asiatic starling W7
Hindi: mast adj intoxicated W7
  maina n Asiatic starling W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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