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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: mak-   'skin, leather bag'

Semantic Field: Skin, Hide

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Breton: min n muzzle AHD
English  
Old English: maga n.masc maw W7/ASD
Middle English: maw n maw W7
English: maw n stomach: where food goes when swallowed AHD/W7
  minaudiere n small ornamental purse AHD
W-Germanic  
Dutch: maag n maw TLL
Old High German: mago n maw W7
German: Magen n.masc maw ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: magi n.masc maw LRC
Icelandic: magi n maw ASD
Danish: mave n maw ASD
Swedish: mage n maw TLL
Italic  
French: minauder vb to smirk, simper AHD
  minaudier adj smirking, affected AHD
  minaudière n minaudiere AHD
  mine n appearance, countenance AHD
Baltic  
Lithuanian: makis n.masc purse W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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