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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: medhi-, medhio-   'middle'

Semantic Field: Middle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mæce/mece n.masc sword, blade GED/ASD
  middan prep amid W7
  middan-eard n.masc world, lit. middle-earth LRC
  midde adj mid W7
  middel adj middle W7
  midde-weard adv middling, lit. mid-ward LRC
  onmiddan prep amid W7
Middle English: amidde prep amid MEV
  amiddes prep/adv amidst; in the midst MEV
  mediate adj mediate W7
  mene adj mean W7
  mid adj/prep mid W7
  middel adj middle W7
  middes/amidde(s) prep amid(st) W7
  middest n midst W7
  moite n moiety W7
English: amid(st) prep (from) among, in(to) the middle of AHD/W7
  intermediate adj between extremes, re: middle place/degree AHD/W7
  mean adj middling, moderate, intermediate AHD/W7
  mean n mid-point, something intervening/intermediate AHD/W7
  medal n metal disk bearing religious emblem/picture AHD/W7
  Mede prop.n Bree calendar's July in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  medial adj re: middle AHD
  median adj medial, being in middle/intermediate position AHD/W7
  mediastinum n irregular median septum of thoracic cavity AHD/W7
  mediate adj occupying middle position AHD/W7
  mediate vb to interpose between parties to reconcile them AHD/W7
  mediterranean n nearly/completely surrounded by dry land AHD
  medium n something in middle position AHD/W7
  mezzaluna n crescent-shaped knife with 2 handles AHD
  mezzanine n low-ceiling story of building between main stories AHD/W7
  mezzotint n manner of engraving steel/copper AHD/W7
  mid adj being in middle/midst AHD/W7
  middle adj central, medial, equally distant from extremes AHD/W7
  Middle-earth prop.n world setting in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Midgard prop.n world inhabited by humans (Germanic mythology) LRC
  midst n interior, middle, central part/point AHD/W7
  milieu n setting, environment AHD/W7
  mizzen n fore-and-aft sail mounted on mizzenmast AHD
  mizzenmast n sailing ship's 3rd mast aft AHD
  moiety n half, either of two equal parts AHD/W7
  mullion n vertical member dividing window/opening AHD
Old Frisian: middel adj middle ASD
Old Saxon: maki n.masc sword GED
  middil-gard adj world, lit. middle-earth ASD
Old High German: mitti(l) adj middle W7/ASD
German: Mitte n.fem middle, center LRC
Runic: makija n sword GED
Old Norse: mið-garðr n.masc world, Midgard, lit. middle-yard, middle-earth W7
  miðr adj middle LRC
Old Icelandic: mækir n.masc sword GED
Icelandic: meðal- adj middle ASD
Danish: medens conj while TLL
  mellem prep amid, between TLL
Swedish: medan conj while TLL
  mellan prep amid, between TLL
Gothic: meki short sword GED
  midjis adj middle LRC
  midjun-gards n.str.masc world, Midgard, lit. middle-yard, middle-earth LRC
Crimean Gothic: mycha n sword CGo
Latin: intermedius adj placed in between W7
  medianus adj median W7
  mediastinus n.masc drudge W7
  medius, media, medium adj (in the) middle W7
Vulgar Latin: medalis adj half W7
Late Latin: medialis adj of the middle W7
  medietas, medietatis n.fem middle, half W7
Medieval Latin: intermediatus vb.ptc placed in between, in the middle W7
  mediatus vb.ptc intermediate W7
  medio, mediare, mediavi, mediatus vb to be intermediate W7
New Latin: mediastinum n.neut irregular septum of thoracic cavity W7
Old French: mi adj middle, half W7
  milieu n.masc midst W7
Middle French: médaille n.fem medal W7
  meien adj mean W7
  moitié n.fem moiety W7
French: mezzanine n.fem mezzanine W7
  milieu n.masc center, (particular) social environment W7
Old Italian: medaglia n.fem medal, coin worth 1/2 denarius W7
Italian: mèzza n.fem half-hour W7
  mezzanino n.masc mezzanine floor W7
  mezzano adj middle W7
  mezzatinta n.fem half-tint, off-shade W7
  mèzzo n.masc half, middle, medium W7
Greek: mesos adj middle, central W7
Classical Armenian: mej n midst, middle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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