The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. mei-   'to mure, repair, strengthen; pole'

Semantic Fields: to Do, Make; Beam


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mæran/maran vb.wk to declare, make known; fix/mark meres ASD/OED
  mære n.neut mere W7/ASD
Middle English: me(a)ren vb to fix/mark meres OED
  mere n mere W7
  muren vb to mure W7
English: ammunition n projectiles fired from weapons AHD/W7
  immure vb.trans to enclose within walls AHD/W7
  mere n border, landmark, boundary AHD/W7
  Mering prop.n Rohan/Gondor stream in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  mete n boundary AHD/W7
  munition n defense, rampart AHD/W7
  mural adj re: wall AHD/W7
  mural n mural painting W7
  mure vb.trans to immure AHD/W7
  praemunire n offense against English Crown AHD/W7
  premunition n advance provision of protection AHD/W7
Dutch: muur n wall TLL
Old Saxon: marian vb to declare, make known ASD
Old High German: marian vb to declare, make known ASD
  mura n wall KDW
German: Mauer n wall TLL
Icelandic: mæra vb to declare, make known ASD
  mærr n mere, border land ASD
Danish: mur n wall TLL
Swedish: mur n wall TLL
Gothic: merjan vb to proclaim, announce ASD
Latin: meta n.fem pyramid used as turning post W7
  moenia, moenium n.neut wall(s) LRC
  munimentum, munimenti n.neut defense LRC
  munio, munire, munivi, munitus vb to wall, fortify W7
  munitio, munitionis n.fem fortification W7
  muralis adj mural W7
  murus, muri n.masc (city) wall LRC
  praemunio, praemunire, praemunivi, praemunitus vb to fortify in advance W7
  praemunitio, praemunitionis n.fem premunition W7
Late Latin: muro, murare vb to mure W7
Medieval Latin: immuro, immurare vb to immure W7
  praemunio, praemunire vb to fortify W7
Anglo-French: mete n.masc mete W7
Middle French: amunition n.fem ammunition W7
  munition n.fem munition W7
  murer vb to mure W7
French: mur n wall TLL
Old Church Slavonic: mesto n.neut place LRC
Albanian: mur n wall LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next