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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. men-   'to rise, mount, tower'

Semantic Fields: to Rise; Tower


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: munt n.masc mount W7/ASD
Middle English: amounten vb to amount W7
  demenen vb to demean W7
  eminent adj eminent W7
  menable adj amenable AHD
  menace n menace W7
  mount n mount W7
  mountain n mountain W7
  mounten vb to mount W7
English: amenable adj answerable, liable to be held to account AHD/W7
  amount n aggregate, total number/quantity W7
  amount vb.intrans to add up AHD/W7
  demean vb.trans to behave/conduct oneself in proper manner AHD/W7
  eminent adj conspicuous, standing out as readily noted/perceived AHD/W7
  Fire-mountain prop.n Orodruin, a.k.a. Mount Doom in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  imminent adj ready to take place AHD/W7
  menace n threat, intention to inflict harm AHD/W7
  menace vb to threaten, show intention to harm W7
  minacious adj menacing, threatening AHD
  minatorial adj minacious AHD
  minatory adj minacious AHD
  mons n protuberance of human body AHD
  montane adj re: mountain areas AHD
  monte n card game AHD/W7
  monticule n little mount AHD/W7
  mount n mountain, high hill AHD/W7
  mount vb to increase in extent/amount AHD/W7
  mountain n land mass higher than hill projecting conspicuously above surroundings AHD/W7
  paramount adj of chief concern/importance AHD
  promenade n leisurely walk/ride in public place for display/pleasure AHD/W7
  prominent adj protuberant, projecting/standing out from line/surface AHD/W7
  promontory n headland, high point of rock/land projecting into water AHD/W7
  ultramontane adj re: peoples/countries beyond mountains AHD/W7
Old Norse: moena vb to mount, project W7
Latin: emineo, eminere vb to stand out W7
  immineo, imminere vb to project, menace imminently W7
  minacia n.fem menace W7
  minaciter adv threateningly LRC
  minax, minacis adj minacious W7
  mineo, minere vb to menace W7
  mino, minare vb to menace, drive away W7
  minor, minari vb.dep to menace W7/ELD
  mons, montis n.masc mountain LRC
  montanus adj re: mountain W7
  prominens, prominentis adj important, standing out W7
  promineo, prominere vb to jut forth/forward W7
  promino, prominare vb to drive forward W7
  promonturium, promunturium n.neut promontory W7
Vulgar Latin: montaneus adj re: mountain W7
  monto, montare vb to climb up W7
Late Latin: monticulus n.masc.dim monticule, small heap W7
Medieval Latin: ultramontanus adj ultramontane W7
Spanish: monte n.masc mountain W7
Old French: amener vb to lead to W7
  amont adv upward AHD
  amont n.masc upper waters W7
  amonter vb to amount W7
  demener vb to conduct W7
  menable adj amenable AHD
  mener vb to drive, lead W7
  mont n.masc mountain W7
  montaigne n.fem mountain W7
Anglo-French: amenable adj amenable, nice W7
Middle French: amener vb to lead up W7
  eminent adj eminent W7
  menace n.fem threat W7
  monter vb to climb up W7
French: mener vb to lead W7
  monticule n.masc very small hill W7
  promenade n.fem promenade, tour W7
  promener vb to take for a walk W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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