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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: menot, genitive meneses, from which menes-, mens-, mes-, men-   'month; moon'

Semantic Fields: Month; Moon


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: blot-monaþ n.masc November, lit. blood-month (of sacrifice) ASD
  easter-monaþ n.masc April, lit. Easter-month ASD
  halig-monaþ n.masc September, lit. holy-month (of sacrifice) ASD
  mona n.masc moon W7/ASD
  mon(a)ð n.masc month ASD
  Sol-monaþ prop.n.masc February, lit. mire-month ASD
Middle English: mone n moon W7
  month n month W7
English: amenorrhea n abnormal absence/suppression of menstrual discharge AHD/W7
  bimestrial adj bimonthly, recurring/continuing in/for 2 months AHD/W7
  Blotmath/Blodmath/Blommath prop.n Shire calendar's November in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  catamenia n menses AHD/W7
  dysmenorrhea n painful/difficult/laborious menstruation AHD/CDC
  emmenagogue n agent promoting menstrual discharge AHD/W7
  Halimath prop.n Shire calendar's September in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Harvestmath prop.n Bree calendar's September in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  menarche n first menstrual period AHD
  meniscus n crescent, crescent-shaped body AHD/W7
  menopause n natural cessation of menstruation AHD/W7
  menses n menstrual flow AHD/W7
  menstrual adj re: menstruation AHD
  menstruate vb.intrans to discharge blood/tissue/secretion debris from uterus AHD/W7
  menstruation n (monthly) discharge of uterine blood/tissue/secretions W7
  mensural adj re: polyphonic music where notes have precise time value AHD/W7
  month n measure of time originally defined by period of moon's revolution AHD/W7
  moon n earth's only natural satellite AHD/W7
  moonshine n moonlight W7
  semester n six months AHD/W7
  So(l)math prop.n Shire calendar's February in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  trimester n (about) three months AHD/W7
  Wedmath prop.n Shire calendar's August in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Yulemath prop.n Bree calendar's December in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: mona n.masc moon ASD
  monath n month ASD
Dutch: maan n.fem moon ASD
Old Saxon: mano n.masc moon ASD
Old Low German: manuth n month ASD
Old High German: mano n.masc moon W7/ASD
  manod n month W7
Middle High German: man(d)e/mant n.masc/fem moon ASD
German: Monat n.masc month ASD
  Mond n.masc moon ASD
  Semester n.neut six months W7
Old Norse: máni n.masc moon LRC
Icelandic: máni n.masc moon ASD
  mánuðr n month ASD
Danish: maane n moon LRC
  maaned n month ASD
Swedish: monad n month ASD
  måne n moon LRC
Gothic: mena n.masc moon ASD
  menoþs n month ASD
Crimean Gothic: mine n moon CGo
Latin: bimestris adj bimestrial W7
  mensis n.masc month W7
  menstrua mentruations W7
  menstruus adj monthly W7
  mensura n.fem measure W7
  semestris adj half-yearly W7
  trimestris adj of three months W7
Late Latin: menstruor, menstruari, mestruatus vb.dep to menstruate W7
  mensuralis adj re: measures W7
New Latin: amenorrhea n.fem absence of menstruation W7
  catamenia n.fem catamenia W7
  meniscus n.masc meniscus W7
French: ménopause n.fem menopause W7
  trimestre n.masc trimester W7
Latvian: menesis n.masc month LRC
Old Church Slavonic: meseci' n.masc moon, month LRC
Greek: emmenos adj monthly W7
  katamenia n.fem catamenia W7
  katamenios adj monthly W7
  mên n.masc month LRC
  mênás n.fem moon LS
  mênê n.fem moon LS
  mênískos n.masc meniscus LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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