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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mer-   'to flicker, shimmer'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mi(e)rce/myrce n.neut mirk, murk IEW/ASD
  morgen n.masc morrow, morning W7
Middle English: amorwe adv on the next day MEV
  conformen vb to conform W7
  deformen vb to deform W7
  forme n form W7
  informen vb to inform W7
  mere adj mere W7
  mirke n mirk W7
  morwen, morn, morning n morn, morning W7
  reformen vb to reform W7
  transformen vb to transform W7
English: allelomorph n allele AHD/W7
  amorphous adj shapeless, without form TLL
  conform vb to bring into harmony/agreement AHD/W7
  deform vb to spoil form of AHD/W7
  filiform adj shaped like filament AHD/W7
  -form adj.sfx resembling, in form/shape of AHD/W7
  form n shape/structure (as distinguished from material) AHD/W7
  formal adj re: essential structure/constitution AHD/W7
  formant n band/component of speech sound AHD/W7
  format n shape/size/general makeup AHD/W7
  formula n set phrasings for use in ritual/ceremony AHD/W7
  inform vb to impart material form to AHD/W7
  mere adj absolute, undiminished AHD/W7
  metamorphosis n change in physical form/structure/substance AHD/W7
  mirk n murk W7
  Mirkwood prop.n gloomy forest in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  mirky adj murky W7
  morganatic adj re: marriage of social unequals where no titles/estates are shared AHD
  morgen n Dutch/southern African land unit AHD/W7
  morn n dawn AHD/W7
  morning n dawn AHD/W7
  -morph sfx form, shape, structure, appearance AHD
  morpheme n meaningful linguistic unit AHD/W7
  morph(o)- pfx form, shape, structure, appearance AHD
  morphosis n manner in which organism changes form AHD
  morrow n morning AHD/W7
  murk n gloom, darkness AHD/W7
  murky adj dark, gloomy LRC
  platform n design, plan AHD/W7
  reform vb to amend/improve (e.g. by change of form) AHD/W7
  transform vb to change in structure/composition AHD/W7
  uniform adj invariant, always having same form/manner/degree AHD/W7
Scots English: mirk n murk ASD
Old Frisian: morn n morn ASD
Dutch: morgen n morning W7
Old Saxon: mirki adj murky LRC
  morgan n morning ASD
Old High German: morgan n.masc morning W7
German: Allelomorph n allelomorph AHD
  Format n.neut format W7
  Morgen n.masc morning W7
Old Norse: morginn n.masc morning LRC
  myrkr adj murky LRC
Old Icelandic: myrkvi n.masc murk LRC
  Myrk-viðr prop.n.masc east Europe forest, lit. Murk-wood LRC
Icelandic: mjörkvi n murk, thick fog ASD
  morginn n morning ASD
  myrkr n.neut murk ASD
Danish: morgen n morning ASD
  mörke n murk ASD
Swedish: morgon n morning ASD
  mörker n murk TLL
Gothic: maúrgins n.str.masc morning LRC
Latin: conformo, conformare vb to shape W7
  deformo, deformare vb to deform W7
  forma n.fem form, shape, beauty W7
  -formis sfx shaped W7
  formo, formare, formavi, formatus vb to form, shape W7
  formula n.fem beauty, formula W7
  informo, informare vb to form, fashion W7
  merus adj pure, unmixed W7
  metamorphosis n.fem metamorphosis W7
  reformo, reformare vb to form again W7
  transformo, transformare vb to change form W7
  uniformis adj of one shape W7
Portuguese: forma n form TLL
Spanish: horma n form TLL
Old French: forme n.fem form, shape W7
Middle French: conformer vb to conform W7
  deformer vb to deform W7
  enformer vb to inform W7
  plate-forme n.fem diagram, map, flat form W7
  reformer vb to form again W7
  uniforme adj uniform W7
French: format n.masc format W7
  forme n form TLL
  morphème n.masc morpheme W7
Italian: forma n form TLL
Latvian: pamirkskinat, pamirkskinu, pamirkskinaju vb to blink LRC
Greek: amorphos adj amorphous AHD
  metamorphóô vb to transform LRC
  metamorphosis n.fem metamorphosis, transformation W7
  morphe n.fem form W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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