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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. mer-, meru-   'to rub, wipe; pack, rob'

Semantic Fields: to Rub; to Rob; Robber


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mare/mære/mere n.fem goblin, nightmare IEW/ASD
  mortere n.masc mortar W7
Middle English: marble n marble W7
  morsel n morsel W7
  morter n mortar W7
  remorse n remorse W7
English: amaranth n imaginary flower which never fades AHD/W7
  marasmus n progressive emaciation AHD/W7
  marble n metamorphic limestone W7
  morbid adj re: disease AHD/W7
  mordacious adj caustic, sharp/biting in style/manner AHD/W7
  mordant adj incisive, biting/caustic in thought/style/manner AHD/W7
  mordent n musical ornament: quick alternation of principal tone with tone below AHD/W7
  morsel n bite, small piece of food AHD/W7
  nightmare n incubus, evil spirit that oppresses during sleep AHD/CDC
  premorse adj bitten off, terminated abruptly/irregularly AHD/W7
  remorse n self-reproach, gnawing distress over guilt AHD/W7
Dutch: marmer n marble TLL
German: Mahr n.masc nightmare IEW
  Marmor n marble TLL
  Nachtmahr n.masc nightmare IEW
Old Norse: morna, mornað vb to waste away LRC
Danish: marmor n marble TLL
Swedish: marmor n marble TLL
Latin: amarantus n.neut amaranth W7
  marmor n marble LRC
  morbidus adj morbid, diseased W7
  morbus, morbi n.masc illness, disease LRC
  mordax, mordacis adj biting W7
  mordeo, mordere, momordi, morsus vb to bite W7
  morsus, morsus n.masc action of biting W7
  mortarium n.masc mortar W7
  praemordeo, praemordere, praemordi, praemorsus vb to bite off in front W7
  remordeo, remordere, remordi, remorsus vb to bite again W7
  remorsus, remorsus n.masc remorse; act of biting again W7
Late Latin: marasmus n.masc marasmus, exhaustion, wasting away W7
Medieval Latin: remorsus, remorsus n.masc guilt, remorse W7
New Latin: amaranthus n amaranth AHD
Portuguese: mármore n marble LRC
Spanish: marmol n marble LRC
Old French: marbre n marble W7
  mors n.masc bite W7
  morsel n.masc morsel W7
Middle French: mordant adj harsh, mordant W7
  mordre vb to bite W7
  mortier n.masc mortar W7
  remors n.masc remorse W7
French: marbre n marble LRC
Italian: marmo n marble LRC
  mordènte adj mordant W7
Homeric Greek: marmáreos adj flashing, sparkling, glittering LS
  mármaros n.masc block of stone LRC
Greek: amarantos adj unfading W7
  marainw vb to waste away W7
  marasmos n.masc marasmus, exhaustion W7
  marmáreos adj re: marble LS
  marmárinos adj re: marble LS
  mármaros n.masc marble, sparkling crystalline rock LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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