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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: mod- : mud-, or mad- : mud-   'to meet, approach'

Semantic Field: to Meet


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gemot n.neut moot, gemot, council LRC
  mal/mæl n pay, agreement W7
  maðelian, maðelode, maðelod vb.wk.II to speak, address, harangue LRC
  metan, mette, meted vb.wk.I to meet, come upon LRC
  mot n moot W7
Middle English: maille/male n mail W7
  meten vb to meet W7
  moot n moot W7
English: blackmail n tribute exacted for immunity from pillage AHD/W7
  Entmoot prop.n Ent gathering in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  folkmoot n general assembly of shire residents AHD/W7
  gemot n Anglo-Saxon judicial/legislative assembly (before Norman conquest) AHD/W7
  mail n rent, payment AHD/W7
  meet, met vb to find, come into presence of AHD/W7
  moot n deliberative meeting/assembly AHD/W7
  Shire-moot prop.n Shire meeting in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Waymeet prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  witenagemot n council of the wise AHD/W7
Old Frisian: meta vb to meet, find ASD
Old Saxon: motian vb to meet, find ASD
Old High German: muoz n moot W7
Old Norse: mál n.neut speech, tale; agreement, information; period of time LRC
  mót n moot LRC
  mæla, mælat vb to speak LRC
Icelandic: moeta vb to meet, find ASD
Danish: imod prep toward TLL
Swedish: emot prep toward TLL
Gothic: ga-motjan vb to meet, find ASD
Classical Armenian: matc'im vb to approach LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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