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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: moro-   'murrey, mulberry, blackberry'

Semantic Field: Berry

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Welsh: merwydden n mulberry IEW
English  
English: morula n solid globular blastomere mass AHD/W7
  mulberry n tree with edible purple berrylike fruit AHD/W7
  murrey adj/n (re:) mulberry, dark red AHD
  sycamore n buttonball/buttonwood: deciduous tree with bark that flakes in large patches AHD
W-Germanic  
Old High German: murbere/morbere n mulberry IEW
Middle High German: mulber n mulberry IEW
Italic  
Latin: morum n.neut mulberry, blackberry W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: mõras n mulberry IEW
Hellenic  
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: môron n mulberry, blackberry IEW
Homeric Greek: moróeis adj dark-hued, mulberry-colored LRC
Greek: móron n mulberry, blackberry IEW
Armenian  
Armenian: mor/mor(en)i n blackberry IEW

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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