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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mu-, mus-   'fly, gnat, midge, muscid, mosquito'

Semantic Field: Fly (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mycg(e)/mygg n.fem/masc midge, mosquito W7/ASD
Middle English: migge n midge W7
English: midge n tiny 2-winged fly AHD/W7
  Midgewater prop.n marshes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  mosquito n 2-winged fly with female adapted to puncture skin/suck blood AHD/W7
  Mugwort prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  muscarine n quaternary ammonium base chemically related to choline AHD/W7
  muscid adj/n (re:) housefly AHD
  mush vb.intrans to hike/travel over snow with dog sled AHD/W7
  musket n large heavy shoulder firearm AHD/W7
  myiasis n fly maggot infestation AHD/W7
Dutch: mug n gnat, midge TLL
Old Low German: muggia n.fem midge ASD
Old High German: mucka/mucca/mugga n.fem midge W7/ASD
German: Mücke n.fem midge ASD
  Muskarin n muscarine W7
Old Norse:  n gnat, midge KNW
Icelandic: myg n.neut midge ASD
Danish: myg n midge ASD
Swedish: mygg(a) n gnat, midge ASD/TLL
Latin: musca n.fem fly W7
New Latin: muscaria n.fem specific epithet of fly agaric W7
  myiasis n.fem fly maggot infestation W7
Spanish: mosca n.fem fly W7
  mosquito n.masc mosquito W7
Middle French: mousquet n.masc musket W7
French: mouche n.fem fly W7
American French: moucher vb to blow one's nose W7
Old Italian: mosca n.fem fly W7
  moschetto n.masc arrow for crossbow; musket W7
Greek: myia n.fem fly W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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