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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ne, ne, nei   (negative particle: no, etc.)

Semantic Fields: to Deny; to Refuse, Forbid

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: na/no adj/adv/conj no; not (at all); nor ASD
  na-hwæðer/na-wðer/na-ðor adv/conj neither...nor ASD
  na-læs adv not at all, lit. no less LRC
  nan adj/pron no, none, lit. not one W7/ASD
  na-þing n nothing W7
  na-wiht/na-(w)ht/na-uht pron naught, lit. no whit W7/ASD
  ne adv not LRC
  nefne/næfne/nemne conj except, unless, if not GED/ASD
  no-(wi)ht pron nought, lit. no whit W7/ASD
  un- priv.pfx un- W7/ASD
Middle English: annullen vb to annul W7
  denyen vb to deny W7
  in- priv.pfx in- W7
  naught/nought pron naught/nought W7
  no adv no W7
  non- priv.pfx non- W7
  none pron none W7
  nonsuit n nonsuit W7
  nor conj nor W7
  not adv/pron not; nought W7
  nother pron/adj neither W7
  nothing pron nothing W7
  un- priv.pfx un- W7
English: abnegate vb to surrender, relinquish AHD/W7
  ahimsa n doctrine of not harming any living thing (Hinduism and Buddhism) AHD/W7
  a(n)- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
  annihilate vb.trans to nullify, destroy force/substance of AHD/W7
  annul vb.trans to obliterate, reduce to nothing AHD/W7
  deny vb.trans to declare untrue AHD/W7
  in- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
  naught/nought pron nothing, not aught AHD/W7
  naughty adj.arch wicked, vicious in moral character AHD/W7
  ne- pfx not TLL
  nefarious adj heinous, impious, extremely wicked AHD/CDC
  negate vb.trans to deny truth/existence of AHD/W7
  negligee n woman's long flowing nightgown AHD/W7
  negotiate vb to confer with another re: settlement AHD/W7
  nihilism n idea that traditional values/beliefs are unfounded and existence is useless/senseless AHD/W7
  nihility n nothingness, nonexistence AHD
  nil n zero, nothing AHD/W7
  nimiety n excess, redundancy AHD/W7
  no adj/adv/interj not any; not; negative AHD/W7
  non- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
  none pron not any, lit. not one AHD/W7
  nonjuror n one who refuses oath-taking AHD
  nonplus n state of confusion/perplexity/bewilderment AHD
  nonplus vb to bewilder, be/put at loss AHD
  nonsuit n judgment against plaintiff for failure/inability to prosecute/establish case AHD/W7
  nor conj (also) not AHD/W7
  not adv negative: without, absence/reverse of AHD
  nothing pron no thing, not any thing AHD/W7
  null adj invalid, having no legal/binding force AHD/W7
  nullipara n female that has borne no offspring AHD
  renegade n deserter from faith/cause/allegiance AHD/W7
  renege vb to deny, renounce AHD/W7
  un- priv.pfx not AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: na-wet pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
  ne adv not ASD
Dutch: noch conj neither, nor TLL
Old Saxon: ne/ni adv not ASD
  nen adj/pron no, none ASD
  neo-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
Old High German: ne/ni adv not W7/ASD
  nein adj not one ASD
  neo-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
  un- priv.pfx un- W7
German: nein adv/interj no LRC
  Nihilismus n.masc nihilism W7
  noch conj nor TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse:  adv/conj not; nor LRC
Icelandic: neinn adj/pron no, none, lit. not one ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: ni adv not LRC
Italic  
Old Latin: ne- priv.pfx not W7
  nesei conj unless, lit. not if AHD
  nihilum n.neut nothing W7
  noenum adv not W7
Latin: abnego, abnegare vb to refuse, abnegate AHD/ELD
  denego, denegare vb to deny, reject W7/ELD
  ne adv/conj no, not; lest, that not LRC
  nec-/neg- priv.pfx no, not W7
  neglego, neglegere vb to neglect W7
  nego, negare, negavi, negatus vb to deny W7
  negotior, negotiari, negotiatus vb.dep to carry on business W7
  negotium n.neut business W7
  neque adv/conj neither ... nor LRC
  neve conj and not, nor LRC
  ni conj if not, unless LRC
  nihil/nil n.neut nothing W7
  nisi conj unless, lit. not if AHD
  non adv not LRC
  nonnullus, nonnulla, nonnullum adj some, lit. not none LRC
  nullus, nulla, nullum adj/pron no, not one; none, not any LRC
Late Latin: annihilo, annihilare, annihilavi, annihilatus vb to reduce to nothing W7
  annullo, annullare vb to annul, cancel W7
  nimietas n.fem being too much W7
Medieval Latin: renego, renegare, renegavi, renegatus vb to renege, deny again W7
Portuguese: negar vb to deny, negate TLL
  nem conj neither, nor TLL
Spanish: negar vb to deny, negate TLL
  ni conj neither, nor TLL
  renegado n.masc renegade W7
Old French: annuller vb to annul AHD
  denier vb to deny W7
  non interj no W7
Anglo-French: nounsuyte n.fem nonsuit W7
Middle French: in- priv.pfx in- W7
  non- priv.pfx non- W7
  nul adj not anyone W7
French: annuler vb to annul, cancel W7
  négligé n.masc casual clothes worn inside the house W7
  négliger vb to neglect W7
  ni conj neither, nor TLL
  nier vb to deny, negate TLL
Italian:  conj neither, nor TLL
  negare vb to deny, negate TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: ne priv.pcl not LRC
  nei conj neither, nor LRC
  niekas pron no one, nobody, nothing LRC
Latvian: ne priv.pcl not LRC
  neviena pron nobody, no one, not a single LRC
Slavic  
Czech: neboh adj poor, unfortunate, lit. not rich AHD
Old Church Slavonic: ne priv.adv/pcl not; nor LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: a(n)- priv.pfx not W7
  ne- priv.pfx not W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: a(n)- priv.pfx not W7
  ahimsa n noninjury, doctrine of refraining from harming living beings W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
arch=archaic
conj=conjunction
dep=deponent
fem=feminine (gender)
interj=interjection
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pcl=particle
pfx=prefix
priv=privative (i.e., negative)
pron=pronoun
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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